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HNC – Unit 4 Marketing Principles ATHE – Unit 5.6 Marketing Principles & Practice. MARKETING. Learning Outcomes: Understand the concept and process of marketing Be able to use the concepts of segmentaion , targeting and positioning

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HNC – Unit 4 Marketing Principles

ATHE – Unit 5.6 Marketing Principles & Practice


Learning Outcomes:

Understand the concept and process of marketing

Be able to use the concepts of segmentaion, targeting and positioning

Understand the individual elements of the extended marketing mix

Be able to use the marketing mix in different contexts


Learning Outcomes

Understand the role of marketing in business

Understand the principles of marketing

Understand the application of the marketing mix in a specific business

Be able to develop a marketing plan for a specific product or service

Unit 5.6 marketing principles & practice

“Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

‘American Marketing Association’


CIM's Definition of Marketing  

"Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably"

Chartered institute of marketing

“ Satisfying needs & wants through and exchange process”

Philip Kotler

To increase sales revenue

To improve and maintain image of the product or the business

To increase market share

To target a new market

To target a new market segment

Marketing objectives

The marketing concept rests on four pillars:

target market

customer needs

integrated marketing


The marketing concept

1. Production orientation

Mid 19th century – 1920’s.

Business focusses on production processes. Make it and they will buy! Demand exceed supply

2. Sales orientation

1920’s – 1960’s

Rise of aggressive hard sell. Less demand so harder to sell

History of marketing

3. Market orientation

Customer at the "heart" of the business; all activities in the organisation are based around the customer. The customer is truly king!.

Try to understand customer needs and wants, then implement marketing strategy based on their market research; from product development through to product sales.

Once sales have begun further research will be conducted to find out what consumers think about the product and whether product improvements are required.

As markets continuously change, market research and product development is an ongoing process for a market orientation company

What costs and what benefits can you think of for a company to adopt a market orientated approach?


Costs & benefits


  • Market research

  • R&D and Product design

  • Future is unpredictable

  • Loss of sales if NOT responsive to customer needs


  • Products less likely to fail if effective market research

  • Constant customer feedback will allow products to keep evolving

  • Market led companies more flexible

Marketing process consists of:

Marketing audit

Integrated marketing

Environmental analysis

Marketing objectives

Options – plans

Marketing mix

Marketing process overview

Considers INTERNAL & EXTERNAL influences on marketing planning through analysis

Internal – SWOT

External - PESTLE

Marketing audit


What factors would you look at / what questions would you want to ask of your internal systems etc?

Internal marketing audit

Internal marketing audit

  • MEN (Labour).

  • MONEY (Finances).

  • MACHINERY (Equipment).

  • MINUTES (Time).

  • MATERIALS (Factors of Production).

  • How is our marketing team organised?

  • How efficient is our marketing team?

  • How effective is our marketing team?

  • How does our marketing team interface with other organisations and internal functions?

  • How effective are we at Customer Relationship Management (CRM)? How effective are our customer facing processes? (Process)

  • What is the state of our marketing planning process?

  • Is our marketing planning information current and accurate?

  • What is the current state of New Product Development? (Product)

  • How profitable is our product portfolio? (Product)

  • Are we pricing in the right way? (Price)

  • How effective and efficient is distribution? (Place)

  • Are we getting our marketing communications right? (Promotion)

  • Do we have the right people facing our customers? (People)

  • What is the state of our business's physical evidence? (Physical Evidence)

In small groups you will be given a well know company for which you are asked to undertake a SWOT analysis of that company.

Swot activities


National government, local government, trade associations, the EU, regulatory bodies.


Market structure, government policy, trading bodies, taxation, interest rates, trading blocs.


Demographics, culture, attitudes, current issues.

Technological – innovation effecting:-

Products, materials/components, processes, distribution, marketing/administration.


Waste disposal, conservation, natural resources.

Pestle – external audit

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