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Unit 2 Review. United States History Mr. Hughes. The Populist Party . The three major things called for on their platform were Bimetallism, the free and unlimited coinage of silver. A progressive income tax. An eight-hour work day. . William Jennings Bryan. Monopolies v. Trusts. Monopoly.

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Unit 2 review

Unit 2 Review

United States History

Mr. Hughes


The populist party
The Populist Party

  • The three major things called for on their platform were

    • Bimetallism, the free and unlimited coinage of silver.

    • A progressive income tax.

    • An eight-hour work day.

William Jennings Bryan


Monopolies v trusts
Monopolies v. Trusts

Monopoly

Trusts

This is when a number of businesses cooperate to dominate an industry and split the profits.

  • This process involves one company competing with and destroying its competitors .


The jungle the meat inspection act of 1906
The Jungle & The Meat Inspection Act of 1906

  • In 1906, after spending time in a Chicago meat packing plant, Upton Sinclair publishes the book, The Jungle.

    • It shed light on the conditions men had to work in while in the plants.

    • It also showed what was going into the food they were packing.

  • The public was outraged and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was passed.

  • The Food and Drug Administration is a result of the uproar from The Jungle

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m1U0kXX0RAM


The interstate commerce act
The Interstate Commerce Act

  • Congress passed the law in 1887.

    • This followed the Supreme Court decision to overturn Munn v. Illinois which allowed states to regulate railroad rates, which benefited farmers.

  • The federal government now assumed responsibility to supervise railroad activities.

  • The overall goal of the law was to lower excessive railroad rates and stop railroad abuses


Social darwinism
Social Darwinism

  • The ideology was popular to explain why only a small few had all the wealth in the United States.

    • It was based off Charles Darwin book, Origin of the Species, which argued that the animals on the planet were the best suited for survival.

    • Essentially it explained that the rich got that way because they are the smartest and have worked the hardest.

  • It was the explanation used for the economic divide in the United States.


Social gospel movement
Social Gospel Movement

  • The Social Gospel Movement was started in the late 19th century to help improve the lives of the urban poor.

    • They preached the salvation through service to the poor.

      • Many did answer the call and began to help the urban poor.

    • People like Richard Ely, Washington Gladden, and Walter Rauschenbusch were all influential leaders of the cause.


Settlement houses
Settlement Houses

  • As problems in the cities mounted, concerned reformers worked to find solutions.

    • One point of focus was trying to eliminate urban poverty.

  • One avenue they took was to create settlement houses.

    • These houses were built in slums neighborhoods to help the poor, especially immigrants.

    • The house offered educational, cultural, and social services to their communities.

  • Charles Stover and Stanton Colt are credited for opening the first settlement house in NYC in 1886.

  • Jane Addams and Ellen Gates opened the Hull House in Chicago in 1889.

  • In 1910, Janie Porter Barrett opened the first settlement house for African-Americans, the Locust Street Settlement, in Hampton Virginia.

    • By 1910, there were 400 settlement houses in the United States.

    • These houses helped cultivate a social responsibility for the urban poor.

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfqbPW3MDVk&feature=related


Carnegie rockefeller
Carnegie & Rockefeller

  • Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller were captains of industry in the late 1800’s.

    • Carnegie used vertical integration to amass his fortune.

    • While Rockefeller used horizontal integration to earn his millions.


Gilded age
Gilded Age

  • The name “Gilded Age” refers to the massive economic growth in the United States from 1869 through 1896.

  • On the outside, America looked rich and a symbol of democracy, but a closer look would illustrate political corruption and greed.


Industrial growth
Industrial Growth

  • There were 3 major reasons for the massive industrial growth in the United States between 1860 and 1920.

    • Abundant natural resources.

    • New inventions

    • A growing population to provide markets and workers.


Scabs

The use of scabs were unpopular with striking workers during the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

Scabs


Skyscrapers
Skyscrapers the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • With the growing populations and limited living areas, many cities grew up instead of out.

    • This was an option due to the development of a cheap and easy way to make steel at the end of the 19th century.


Urbanization
Urbanization the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • With the idea that the U.S. had jobs for everyone, many people settled in the major industrial cities in order to find work.

    • In 1907 alone, over 1 million people arrived from Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.

  • With the 1898 annexation of Hawaii to the United States, the door opened for Japanese to come to the U.S.

    • By 1920, 200,000 Japanese lived on the West Coast.

  • The term urbanization was used to describe the growth in cities.


U s population 1850 1900
U.S. Population 1850-1900 the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • Millions of immigrants came to the United States with the hope of attaining a better life.

    • Immigrants had the option to start over in the United States or face famine, overpopulation, and/or religious persecution in their homeland.

      • Some immigrants where known as “birds of passage”, they would simply come to earn money, and then return to their homeland.


Political machines
Political Machines the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • Once admitted into the country, immigrants now had to find a place to live, a job, and survive in a culture that was entirely new to them.

    • Political groups helped the immigrants find medical treatment, housing, jobs, and schools.

      • This was an attempt to influence their vote in later elections.

      • Social reformers saw this practice as a exploitation of the newly arrived immigrants.

        • They attacked them through various legal avenues eventually brought them down.


Americanization
Americanization the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • Many people who lived in America saw their country as a melting pot.

    • This was the mixture of all the different nationalities to create an American culture.

      • This did call for immigrants to drop the customs they were used to in order to become “Americanized”.

  • Even with having to endure racial and ethnic prejudice, many new immigrants did not want to leave behind traditions of their old country.


Labor unions
Labor Unions the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • The usual laborer during this time period worked long hours and was paid low wages.

    • One example was the Triangle Shirtwaist Company.

      • Women there worked 14 hours days, 6 days a week, and received about $6 in wages.

  • The low wages and long hours prompted workers to unite and form unions.


Sherman antitrust act
Sherman Antitrust Act the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • This was created to break up monopolies.

  • It was used by business leaders to limit labor union activities by claiming that it interfered with trade.


Haymarket affair homestead strike
Haymarket Affair & Homestead Strike the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • There were 3 major results from the Haymarket Affair and Homestead Strike.

    • Public opinion began to turn against the labor movement.

    • The end of any meaningful union in the steel industry for almost 40 years.

    • Management, in many cases, began forcing new employees to sign “yellow- dog” contracts, prohibiting them from joining a union.


Progressive era politics
Progressive Era Politics the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • With all the problems the nation faced, a new philosophy took over the government.

  • The Progressive Era was based off a government that pushed to foster efficiency and respond to public needs.


Gentleman s agreement
Gentleman’s Agreement the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • 1908: The Gentleman’s Agreement was signed between the United States and Japan.

    • In 1906, the city of San Francisco forced all Japanese students to attend segregated schools.

      • Japan protested in response to the move.

    • Japan agreed to limit emigration to the United States in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco school segregation.


Chinese exclusion act
Chinese Exclusion Act the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • 1882: Congress stopped the immigration of Chinese for 10 years by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act.

    • Only students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials were permitted to enter the U.S.

      • It severely limited the number of immigrants from China into the United States.

      • It was extended another 10 years in 1892

      • It was not repealed until 1943.


Horizontal v vertical integration
Horizontal v. Vertical Integration the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

Horizontal

Vertical

Vertical integration is when a company buys up the companies that produce resources for his company.

This was the practice of Carnegie and Carnegie Steel Company.

  • In this practice, a company buys up, or creates a trust with, all of the companies that produce a similar product to theirs.

    • Rockefeller used this to create Standard Oil.

    • This is the way most monopolies have been created.


Railroads
Railroads the late 1800’s because they were a tool used by owners to break a strike.

  • There were 3 things the railroads did for the United States

    • They made westward expansion possible.

    • They led cities to specialize in certain industries.

    • They led to the development of time zones.


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