TESTING HIGHER SKILLS. Raja C Bandaranayake. DOMAINS OF LEARNING. Cognitive (Knowledge) Psychomotor (Motor skills) Affective (Attitudes). THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN. Recall and recognition Comprehension or Understanding Application Problem-solving analysis synthesis evaluation.
TESTING HIGHER SKILLS
Raja C Bandaranayake
Describe the structural changes associated with the assumption of the erect posture by an infant.
List the advantages and disadvantages of each change.
Name two sites in the body where an intimate relationship between the nervous and endocrine systems is of functional significance.
Explain the functional significance of such a relationship at each site, relating function to the histological structure of the site.
MEQ FLOWCHART – ACUTE APPENDICITIS
Male 25 yrCircum-umbilicalEmbryology
PGH Surg.Wdcolicky painHistology
Pain localised to RIFWhy changed?
Abd. PalpationTendernessParietal perit.
Pt of max tendernessrigidity, rebound tend. McBurney’s Pt
LaparotomyAnt abd wall, Positions
Gangrene, Perforation Bacteriology, AntibioticsCulture/ABS
You are a medical officer in a Surgical Ward of PGH.Mr M., a 25-year-old male patient, was admitted with pain in the right lower abdomen. Careful history revealed that the pain started 48 hours prior to admission as regular, intermittent attacks of gradually increasing severity around the navel. The pain is now felt only in the right lower abdomen, and it is continuous. A provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made by you.
Qn. 1AExplain how the pain was initially felt in the umbilical region in this patient?Qn. 1BDescribe the manner in which intermittent pain was produced in this patient, relating your description to the histological structure of the appendix.Qn. 1CName three structures in the abdomen, other than the intestine, in which such pain may originate.
Qn. 1DState precisely the pathological changes that are responsible for (a) the subsequent location of the pain in the right lower abdomen; and (b) its change from a colic to a continuous pain.Qn. 1EList three physical signs you may elicit in this patient on abdominal palpation, which would have helped you to make a provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis.Qn. 1FExplain how each of these signs has been brought about in this patient.
SummaryAcute appendicitis in a 25-year-old male. Physical exam. revealed tenderness , guarding and rebound tenderness in the right iliac fossa. Maximum point of tenderness was McBurney’s point. Pulse was 100/min; temperature 100.2ºF.Qn. 2ADraw a diagram to illustrate McBurney’s point.Qn. 2BList three (3) complications that may occur if this patient is not properly managed.Qn. 2CDescribe briefly the pathological changes that may occur in the inflamed appendix, which result in each of the complications mentioned.
MEQ GRIDQN. ANA PHY PAT MIC BIO PHA CLIN1A X1BX X1CX X1D X1E X1F X2AX2B X2C X X3AX X X3B X4AX X4BX X4CX X5A X5B X6A X6B X X
The best evidence for the neuroectodermal origin of the adrenal medulla is that
The anatomical feature which is least likely to contribute to middle ear infection is:
The ductus arteriosus closes at birth by muscular contraction
Oxygen tension in the blood perfusing the ductus arteriosus rises when the pulmonary circulation opens up
Options:A. Alpha agonists
B. Alpha blockers
C. ACE inhibitors
D. Beta agonists…….
Lead-in:For each patient, select the most appropriate drug class
1. A 40-year-old man with sudden onset of severe headache, dizziness and vomiting, BP 260/130 mmHg; encephalopathy and grade IV retinopathy
2. A 55-year-old man with mild, chronic hypertension, tachycardia and other symptoms of mild congestive cardiac failure. Previous history of asthma and gout.
Examine the macroscopic specimen provided.
Examine the histo-pathological slide provided.
5. Write the histological features seen which either support or do not support your diagnosis.