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Biological and Environmental Foundations. Child Psychology Dennis H. Karpowitz. Genetic Foundation. Genotype – The total you Phenotype – The you we see. 23 Pairs of Chomosomes = 46. Genetic Code. Chromosomes - 23 pairs = 46 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Genes Mitosis. DNA. The Sex Cells.

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Biological and environmental foundations l.jpg

Biological and EnvironmentalFoundations

Child Psychology

Dennis H. Karpowitz


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Genetic Foundation

  • Genotype – The total you

  • Phenotype – The you we see



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Genetic Code

  • Chromosomes - 23 pairs = 46

  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

  • Genes

  • Mitosis



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The Sex Cells

  • Gametes

  • Meiosis

  • Crossing over

  • Zygote - 23 pair = 46


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Meiosis

46 Chromosomes in pairs

Crossing over with the 2 inner-most pair members

Pair chromosomes separate to form 2 sex cells of 23 chrom’s

The duplicated chromosomes separate to form gametes, each with 23 single chromosomes

Zygote, 46 chromosomes


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Gender

  • 22 autosomes

  • Sex cromosomes

    1. XX pair - female

    2. XY pair- male

Figure 1

Figure 2


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Multiple Births

  • Dizygotic or fraternal twins

  • Monozygotic or identical twins


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Patterns of Genetic Inheritance

  • Allele - two forms of each gene

  • Homozygous

  • Hetrozygous

    • Dominant & Recessive

    • Carrier

    • Modifier genes


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E.g., Dominant & Recessive Genetic Disorders

  • Huntington Disease – Dominant

    • Fatal neurological disorder

    • Onset in middle adulthood, no treatment

  • PKU - Recessive gene

    • Cannot metabolize, amino acid phenylalanine

    • May cause retardation

    • Diagnosable at birth, preventable with diet



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Genetic Patterns Continued PKU

  • Codominance - Both alleles Influence

    • Sickle Cell Anemia – Blood disorder 1 in 500 African Americans

  • X-Linked Inheritance

    • Red-Green Color Blindness

    • Hemophilia

  • Genetic Imprinting

    • Praeder-Willi Syndrome, obesity +

    • Fragile X Syndrome, MR, Autism


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Chromosomal Abnormalities PKU

  • XYY Syndrome - Normal

  • XXX Syndrome - Verbal Abilities

  • XO - Spatial ability

  • Down Syndrome – Retardation

    • 21st Chromosome pair



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Reproductive Choices PKU

  • Genetic Counseling

  • Prenatal Diagnostic Methods

    • Ultrasound

    • Amneocentesis

    • Chorionic villi sampling

  • Adoption


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Environmental Context PKU

  • Family

  • Socioeconomic Status

  • Poverty


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Environment Continued PKU

  • Neighborhood

  • Schools

  • City Size


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Larger Environment PKU

  • Culture

  • Public Policy


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Heredity & Environment Interact PKU

  • Heritability

  • Kinship Studies

    • Concordance Rate

  • Range of Reaction

  • Interaction


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Thought Questions PKU

  • True or False: Genes determine for the most part who and what a child becomes.

  • True or False: Environmental influences really make the greatest difference in what a child becomes.


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