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Models of Work Motivation. Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Ph.D. Middle Tennessee State University. Elements of Motivation. What energizes human behavior (energetic forces), What directs or channels such behavior (goal orientation), and

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models of work motivation

Models of Work Motivation

Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Ph.D.

Middle Tennessee State University

elements of motivation
Elements of Motivation
  • What energizes human behavior (energetic forces),
  • What directs or channels such behavior (goal orientation), and
  • How this behavior is maintained or sustained (a systems orientation).
the content theories of motivation
The Content Theories of Motivation

Focus on What motivates people

Focus on Factors

Identification of important internal elements

Elements my be prioritized within the individual

the process theories of motivation
The Process Theories of Motivation

Focus on How people are motivated

Focus on the Psychological Process

Function of the individual’s decision systems

early psychological approaches
Early Psychological Approaches

Hedonism

Seek pleasure and avoid pain

Bentham (1789) coined the term: Hedonic calculus

The process by which people calculate the pros and cons of various acts of behavior

instinct theories
Instinct Theories

Instinct and Unconscious Motivation

McDougall (1908) defined an instinct as an inherited or innate psychological disposition

Automatic predispositions

Freud (1915) argued that individuals are not always aware of all their desires and needs.

Dreams, slips of the tongue, the hedonistic principle appears at an unconscious level

List of instincts continued to grow

the content theories of motivation1
The Content Theories of Motivation

1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

2. Alderfer’s Existence, Related, Growth (ERG) Theory

3. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

4. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self Actualization

Self-Esteem

Social, Belongingness

Safety and Security

Physiological

your needs
Your Needs

Same Order

Same Importance

Same Shape, Over Time

two categories
Two Categories

Growth Needs: Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization

Deficiency Needs: Physiological, Safety and Security, and Belongingness

evaluation porter 1961
Evaluation: Porter (1961)

Upper-level managers have more challenging and autonomous jobs and are in a better position to pursue their growth needs than their lower level counterparts.

wahba bridwell 1976
Wahba & Bridwell (1976)

The theory is widely accepted, but there is little research evidence to support it.

5 Distinct categories?

Hierarchy?

Deficiency vs. Growth?

Unsatisfied need is important?

Satisfaction of lower-level needs leads to the importance of next higher-level needs?

tang west 1997
Tang & West (1997)

The Importance of Human Needs During Peacetime, Retrospective Peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War

International Journal of Stress Management, 4 (1), 47-62.

Prestige Factor: 15.64

Ranking: 867/1468

Percentile: 41

main purpose
Main Purpose

The effect of War on human needs

The importance of needs

The satisfaction of needs

Peacetime vs. Wartime

The US vs. Middle East

January of 1990 vs. January of 1991

Peacetime in 1993-1994 (Study 1)

design of this study
Design of This Study

The US Middle East

Peace War Peace War

I S I S I S I S

I = Importance; S = Satisfaction

study 1
Study 1

Participants:

137 Employees in the US in 1993 and 1994

Age = 34.48

Education = 15.37

Income = US$23,900

Organizational Tenure = 71.0 months

measures of needs
Measures of Needs

Porter’s (1961) Need Satisfaction Questionnaire

NSQ does not have items related to physiological needs and safety needs.

13-item, 5-point Likert Scale

the need scale
The Need Scale

The availability of Water,

Food, and

Basic Physiological Needs;

The security and safety of My Own Life,

My Family, and

My Country;

the need scale1
The Need Scale

Develop close friendships,

Give help and offer support to other people;

Feeling of self-esteem,

The prestige and regard received from others;

The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment,

Self-Fulfillment,

Personal growth and development.

factors of needs during peacetime
Factors of Needs During Peacetime

The Importance of Needs

Principal Components Factor Analysis

Eigenvalues greater than 1

Varimax Rotation

Scree test

We identified 2 Factors

lower order needs peacetime
Lower-Order Needs (Peacetime)

Item Factor Loading

Water .91

Food .89

Basic physiological needs .78

Security and safety of my family .67

My own life .66

My country .62.

higher order needs peacetime
Higher-Order Needs (Peacetime)

Item Factor Loading

Worthwhile accomplishment .87

Self-Fulfillment .83

Personal growth .75

Self-Esteem .74

Close friendship .59

Give help and offer support .54

Prestige and regard .40.

study 2
Study 2

War-related stress began on August 2, 1990 when Kuwait was occupied by Iraq.

The Persian Gulf War started on January 16, 1991.

Data were collected between January 16 and April 30, 1991.

The Retrospective Peacetime in 1990

The Persian Gulf War in 1991

participants
Participants

Psychology students in the Middle Tennessee: MTSU, APSU, Fort Campbell

N = 564, Male = 184, Female = 360

Age = 23.52

Education = 14.64

Caucasians = 441, African-Americans = 52, Hispanics = 6, Asians = 14, American Indians = 3

Married = 91, Single = 406, Divorced = 16

participants1
Participants

Spouse/Relatives in the war?

Yes = 86, No = 441

Close friends in the war?

Yes = 280, No = 247.

importance of lower order needs peacetime 1990
Importance of Lower-Order Needs Peacetime, 1990

Item Factor Loading

Water .88

Food .87

Security and safety of My country .74

Basic physiological needs .70

My own life .65

Security and safety of my family .62.

importance of higher order needs peacetime 1990
Importance of Higher-Order NeedsPeacetime, 1990

Item Factor Loading

Worthwhile accomplishment .82

Self-Fulfillment .76

Personal growth .74

Give help and offer support .72

Close friendship .71

Self-Esteem .70

Prestige and regard .63.

importance of needs wartime 1991
Importance of NeedsWartime, 1991

Item Factor Loading

Security and safety of my family .87

Personal growth .85

Self-Fulfillment .85

Worthwhile accomplishment .84

Self-Esteem .83

Give help and offer support .80

My own life .80

Basic physiological needs .80

Security and safety of My country .79

Close friendship .78

Water .73

Food .72

Prestige and regard .63.

importance of needs wartime
Importance of Needs Wartime
  • All Equally Important
peacetime vs wartime
Peacetime vs. Wartime

Peacetime Wartime t

Own life 3.88 4.16 -5.84*

Family 3.96 4.25 -6.49*

Country 3.53 4.22 -11.92*

The Most Important Need

Friendship 4.00 Growth 4.33

The Least Important Need

Water 3.54 Prestige 3.85

with vs without spouse relatives friends
With vs. Without Spouse, Relatives, & Friends

Importance With Without F

Basic needs 4.22 4.02 4.12*

Family 4.40 4.18 4.59*

Give help 4.25 4.04 4.86*

Friendship 4.39 4.13 8.23*

Strain 8.12 9.89 4.08*

Stress 26.89 25.36 7.11*.

tang ibrahim 1998
Tang & Ibrahim (1998)

Importance of Human Needs During Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: Mideastern Employees

International Journal of Stress Management, 5 (1), 25-37.

mideastern culture
Mideastern Culture

Saudi Arabia:

Much of the country consists of vast deserts where few people live and little or nothing grows.

Traditional, outer-directed values: tribalistic, conformist, sociocentric

Modern, inner-directed values: egocentric, manipulative, and existential

participants2
Participants

Large government organizations: police officers, military personnel,

Large universities: faculty, staff, clerical workers

N = 378

Male = 240, Female = 126

Age = 34.04

Income = US$3,259.77

importance of needs
Importance of Needs

Item Peacetime Wartime

The Most Important

Water Basic Needs

The Least Important

Friendships Fulfillment

importance of needs peacetime
Importance of Needs, Peacetime

Factor 1 Factor Loading

Self-esteem .76

Prestige .70

My own life .65

Food .61

Accomplishment .59

Self-Fulfillment .56

Water .47.

peacetime
Peacetime

Factor 2 Factor Loading

Basic needs .70

My country .70

My family .69

Factor 3 Factor Loading

Friendships .82

Personal growth .70

Give help .54.

importance of needs wartime1
Importance of Needs,Wartime

Factor 1 Factor Loading

Fulfillment .81

My own life .79

Accomplishment .73

My country .57

Friendships .56.

wartime
Wartime

Factor 2 Factor Loading

My family .79

Basic needs .73

Personal growth .62

Give help .58

Water .49

Factor 3 Factor Loading

Prestige .78

Food .69

Self-esteem .63

tang ibrahim west
Tang, Ibrahim, & West

Effects of War-Related Stress on the Satisfaction of Human Needs: The United States vs. the Middle East

International Journal of Management Theory and Practices, 2002, in press

satisfaction of needs the us
Satisfaction of Needs, The US

Needs Peacetime Wartime t

Country 3.73 3.37 5.87*

Friendships 3.63 3.82 -3.59*

The Most Satisfied

Water 4.19 Water 4.15

The Least Satisfied

Self-Esteem 3.29 Country 3.37.

satisfaction of needs middle east
Satisfaction of Needs, Middle East

Needs Peacetime Wartime t

Food 3.75 3.52 2.71*

Own Life 3.95 3.50 5.17*

Family 4.07 3.77 4.37*

Country 3.58 3.40 2.63*

Friendships 3.78 3.51 3.32*

The Most Satisfied

Water 4.00 Water 3.87

The Least Satisfied

Self-Esteem 3.55 Fulfillment 3.37.

satisfaction of needs peacetime the us
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The US

Factor 1 Higher-Order Factor Loading

Fulfillment .83

Accomplishment .81

Self-Esteem .77

Personal Growth .74

Prestige and regard .67

Give help .66

Friendships .59.

satisfaction of needs peacetime the us1
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The US

Factor 2 Lower-Order Factor Loading

Water .86

Food .86

My family .68

Basic needs .66

My own life .66

My country .60.

satisfaction of needs wartime the us
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The US

Factor 1 Higher-Order Factor Loading

Accomplishment .81

Fulfillment .81

Self-Esteem .80

Prestige and regard .72

Personal Growth .70

Friendships .61

Give help .59.

satisfaction of needs wartime the us1
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The US

Factor 2 Physiological Factor Loading

Food .87

Water .86

Basic needs .55;

Factor 3 Safety Factor Loading

My country .85

My family .67

My own life .64.

satisfaction of needs peacetime the middle east
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The Middle East

Factor 1 Factor Loading

My country .75

Food .65

Self-Esteem .64

Prestige and regard .56

Fulfillment .54

Give help .52.

satisfaction of needs peacetime the middle east1
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The Middle East

Factor 2 Factor Loading

Friendship .81

Personal growth .72

Water .53

Basic needs .82;

Factor 3 Factor Loading

My family .77

Accomplishment .48

My own life .43.

satisfaction of needs wartime the middle east
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The Middle East

Factor 1 Factor Loading

Food .82

Fulfillment .79

Self-Esteem .75

My own life .74

Personal growth .71

My country .71

Prestige and regard .70

Friendships .52.

satisfaction of needs wartime the middle east1
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The Middle East
  • Factor 2 Factor Loading
  • My family .81
  • Give help .74
  • Basic needs .70
  • Accomplishment .67
  • Water .60
summary 1
Summary-1

The Importance of Needs, Peacetime, in the US

1993-1994 data: 2 levels

1990 data: 2 levels

Factor 1: Growth Needs--Social, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization

Factor 2: Survival Needs--Physiological, Safety

summary 2
Summary-2

The Importance of Needs, Wartime, in the US

1991 data: 1 level

All needs are important for students in the US during the Persian Gulf War

summary 3
Summary-3

The Importance of Needs, Peacetime, in the Middle East

1991 data: 3 levels

Factor 1: Self-Sufficient Needs

Factor 2: Other-Oriented needs

Factor 3: Social Needs

summary 4
Summary-4

The Importance of Needs, Wartime, in the Middle East

1991 data: 3 levels

Factor 1: Fulfillment and Safety

Factor 2: Survival and Safety for Others

Factor 3: Self-Esteem

summary 5
Summary-5

The Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, in the US

1991 data: 2 levels

Factor 1: Growth Needs--Social, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization

Factor 2: Survival Needs--Physiological, Safety

summary 6
Summary-6

The Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, in the US

1991 data: 3 levels

Factor 1: Growth Needs--Social, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization

Factor 2: Physiological Needs

Factor 3: Safety Needs

summary 7
Summary-7

The Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, in the Middle East

1991 data: 3 levels

Factor 1: Overall Self-Sufficient Needs,

Factor 2: Social Needs,

Factor 3: Personal Needs for Self and Family

summary 8
Summary-8

The Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, in the Middle East

1991 data: 2 levels

Factor 1: Self-Centered Needs,

Factor 2: Other-Centered Needs

summary 9
Summary-9

The US The Middle East

Importance Peacetime

2 3

Importance Wartime

1 3

Satisfaction Peacetime

2 3

Satisfaction Wartime

3 2

summary 10
Summary-10

Needs are different across cultures.

Needs do change from peacetime to wartime.

During peacetime, the pattern for the importance and the satisfaction of needs is the same.

During wartime, the patterns for the importance and the satisfaction of needs change. The patterns change differently across cultures.

summary 11
Summary-11

Human needs are different and dynamic.

Human needs do change over time.

Managers need to understand the needs of people and manage the diversity of the workforce in a global economy effectively and efficiently.

nevis e c 1983
Nevis, E. C. (1983)

Using an American perspective in understanding another culture: Toward a hierarchy of needs for the People’s Republic of China

Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 19 (3), 249-264.

cultural assumptions prc
Cultural Assumptions: PRC

1. The nation has priority over everything; loyalty to the country is of the utmost importance

2. Consideration for the family is very important

3. Personnel selection is based upon exploits or ideological contribution

4. One should have great respect for age

chinese management
Chinese Management
  • Equity is more important than wealth
  • Saving and conserving (money, resources) is to be valued
  • It is considered unhealthy for individuals to stand out or take personal credit for their accomplishments
chinese management1
Chinese Management
  • Every decision must take ideology into account
  • Communal property is more important than private possessions; collectivism is the best economic mechanism
chinese management2
Chinese Management

10. Emphasis focuses upon group forces for motivational purposes

11. Emphasis focuses on central planning and the powerful state

american management
American Management
  • People believe that they can influence the future
  • Freedom of expression and opinion is generally valued; individualism is encouraged
  • To get ahead is taken for granted
american management1
American Management
  • Independent enterprises are the most effective instruments, competition is the most effective mechanism
  • Emphasis focuses on private property, a limited state
  • Personnel selection is based on merit
american management2
American Management
  • Decisions must be based on objective analysis
  • One makes a continual quest for improvement
  • High value is placed on specialization in all fields
american management3
American Management
  • One views the country as having virtually unlimited resources; the “streets-paved-with-gold” myth persists.
  • Fairness is the guiding principle for the integration of the individual and group needs.
chinese hierarchy of needs
Chinese Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Actualization in the Service of Society

Safety

Physiology

Belonging

Tends to be defined in terms of Superordinate Goals: Moral Imperative, Social Confluence

alderfer s erg theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Existence

Related

Growth

two processes
Two Processes

Satisfaction-Progression

Frustration-Regression

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland: World Publishing Co.

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory1
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Herzberg, F. (1968, January-February). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review.

(1987, September-October). Harvard Business Review, 109-120. HBR Classic

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory2
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Has sold more than 1.2 million reprints (1987).

By some 300,000 copies over the runner-up, that is the largest sale of any of the thousands of articles that have ever appeared between HBR’s covers.

frederick herzberg
Frederick Herzberg

Frederick Herzberg, Distinguished Professor of management at the University of Utah, was head of the department of psychology at Case Western Reserve University when he wrote this article.

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory3
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

200 Accountants and Engineers

Pittsburgh, PA

Use Semi-structured interview

Obtain Critical Incidents:

interview question s
Interview Question(s):

Recall a time when they had felt exceptionally good about their jobs. How long did it last?

Recall a time when they had felt exceptionally bad about their jobs. How long did it last?

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory4
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Motivators: Hygiene Factors:

Achievement Co. Policy and Adm.

Recognition Supervision-Tech.

Work Itself Salary

Responsibility Interpersonal Relations

Advancement Working Conditions.

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory5
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Motivators: Hygiene Factors:

Job Content Job Context

Intrinsic Extrinsic

Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

traditional belief
Traditional Belief

Dissatisfaction ---------- Satisfaction

herzberg s theory
Herzberg’s Theory

Two-dimensional need structure

Motivator:

No Job Satisfaction------Job Satisfaction

Hygiene Factor:

Dissatisfaction ---------No Dissatisfaction

herzberg s motivator hygiene theory6
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Motivators:

No Job Satisfaction------Job Satisfaction

Emptiness---------------------------Fulfillment

Hygiene Factors:

Dissatisfaction ---------No Dissatisfaction

Pain-------------------------------Relief of Pain

herzberg s hygiene factor money
Herzberg’s Hygiene Factor--Money

Money is a Hygiene Factor

Movement vs. Motivation

Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic

Money: The more you have, the more you want.

Satisfaction of money goes back to zero and the zero point escalates.

herzberg s retrospective commentary
Herzberg’s Retrospective Commentary
  • Movement is a function of fear of punishment or failure to get extrinsic rewards.
  • Movement requires constant reinforcement and stresses short-term results.
herzberg s retrospective commentary1
Herzberg’s Retrospective Commentary
  • Motivation is a function of growth from getting intrinsic rewards out of interesting and challenging work.
  • Motivation is based on growth needs.
  • The ultimate reward in motivation is personal growth, people don’t need to be rewarded incrementally.
herzberg s retrospective commentary2
Herzberg’s Retrospective Commentary
  • Job enrichment grows out of knowing your product and your client with feeling, not just intellectually.
  • Motivation encompasses passion; movement is sterile (incapable of producing others of its kind).
slide97
KITA

Acronym (kick in the ass)

1. -- Physical KITA

2. -- Psychological KITA

3. + Psychological KITA

KITA will generate Movement, not Motivation

across cultures
Across Cultures
  • Japan
  • India
  • South Africa
  • Zambia
  • Italy
  • Israel
criticism
Criticism
  • Research Methodology—Critical Incident
  • Attribution Theory
  • Provide Self-Serving attribution for Satisfaction
  • Blame others (Co. policy, Supervision, Pay, etc.) for Dissatisfaction
  • No consideration for individual differences
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