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ENGLISH DIALECTS AND ACCENTS. Hughes A., Trudgill P . , English Accents and Dialects (An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of English in the British Isles) , Fourth Edition ; Hodder Arnold: 2005 http://sounds.bl.uk/Sound-Maps/UK-Soundmap/full-screen. VARIETIES OF ENGLISH

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ENGLISH DIALECTS AND ACCENTS

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ENGLISH DIALECTS AND ACCENTS


Hughes A., Trudgill P.,English Accents and Dialects

(An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of English in the British Isles), Fourth Edition; Hodder Arnold: 2005

http://sounds.bl.uk/Sound-Maps/UK-Soundmap/full-screen


  • VARIETIES OF ENGLISH

  • historical change

  • regional variation

  • social variation

  • stylistic variation


  • VARIETIES OF ENGLISH

  • historical change

  • regional variation

  • social variation

  • stylistic variation

  • lexis, grammar, pronunciation…


DIALECT - ACCENT

dialect – common lexical, grammatical, phonetic features

accent – common phonetic features


standard

S

O

C

I

O

L

E

C

T

S

social variation

regional variation

REGIONAL DIALECTS


Social vs. regional variation: h-dropping (West Yorkshire)

Upper-middle class: 12%

Lower-middle class: 28%

Upper working class: 67%

Middle working class: 89%

Lower working class: 93%


REGIONAL VARIETIES OF BRITISH ENGLISH


Social prestige of regional dialects


Social prestige of regional dialects

RP: received pronunciation “accepted in the best society” – 19th century


Social prestige of regional dialects

RP: received pronunciation “accepted in the best society” – 19th century

3-5 % of speakers today


Social prestige of regional dialects

RP: received pronunciation “accepted in the best society” – 19th century

3-5 % of speakers today

Queen’s English, BBC English


Social prestige of regional dialects

RP: received pronunciation “accepted in the best society” – 19th century

3-5 % of speakers today

Queen’s English, BBC English

Estuary English


GRAMMATICAL VARIATION ACROSS REGIONS


  • GRAMMATICAL VARIATION ACROSS REGIONS

  • Nouns

  • unmarked plurality in nouns of measurements:

  • a hundred pound, five foot (even in colloquial SE)


  • GRAMMATICAL VARIATION ACROSS REGIONS

  • Nouns

  • unmarked plurality in nouns of measurements:

  • a hundred pound, five foot (even in colloquial SE)

  • Pronouns

  • us – objective case of I (north-eastern England, Scotland)


  • GRAMMATICAL VARIATION ACROSS REGIONS

  • Nouns

  • unmarked plurality in nouns of measurements:

  • a hundred pound, five foot (even in colloquial SE)

  • Pronouns

  • us – objective case of I (north-eastern England, Scotland)

  • thou, thee, thy, thine (north of England, rural south-west)

  • thou, thee = tha (north of England)

  • tha cast = ‘you can’


strong : weak forms of pronouns (south-west England: Devon, Somerset)

you ee

heer (subject), ‘n (object)

sheer

weus

they‘m

We wouldn’t do it, would us?

Give ‘n to she.


  • strong : weak forms of pronouns (south-west England: Devon, Somerset)

  • you ee

  • heer (subject), ‘n (object)

  • sheer

  • weus

  • they‘m

  • We wouldn’t do it, would us?

  • Give ‘n to she.

  • Mass nouns referred as it, countable nouns as he, er, ‘n

  • Pass me the bread. It’s on the table.

  • Pass me the loaf. He’s on the table.


Reflexive pronouns

(in many non-standard dialects):

myself

herself

yourself

itself

hisself

ourselves

theirselves


Reflexive pronouns

(in many non-standard dialects):

myself

herself

yourself

itself

hisself

ourselves

theirselves

Every student should give themself a break.


Demonstratives

north of England, Scotland: three-way demonstratives

thisthese (NE)thir (Sc)

thatthemthey, thae

yonyonyon, thon


Demonstratives

north of England, Scotland: three-way demonstratives

thisthese (NE)thir (Sc)

thatthemthey, thae

yonyonyon, thon

Relative pronouns

That was the man what done it. (particularly common)

That was the man which done it.

That was the man as done it.

That was the man at done it.

That was the man done it.

That is the man what his son done it.


Comparison of adjectives

She’s more rougher than he is.

He’ s the most toughest bloke I’ve met.

You ought to be carefuller in future.


Comparison of adjectives

She’s more rougher than he is.

He’ s the most toughest bloke I’ve met.

You ought to be carefuller in future.

Adverbs

He ran slow.

She spoke very clever.

They done it very nice.


Comparison of adjectives

She’s more rougher than he is.

He’ s the most toughest bloke I’ve met.

You ought to be carefuller in future.

Adverbs

He ran slow.

She spoke very clever.

They done it very nice.


Verbs


Verbs

Irregular verbs: reduction of forms, regularization of verbs


Verbs

Irregular verbs: reduction of forms, regularization of verbs

see – seen – seen or see – see – seen

give – give – give

come – come – come

go – went – went

write – writ – writ

draw – drawed - drawed


Verbs

Irregular verbs: reduction of forms, regularization of verbs

see – seen – seen or see – see – seen

give – give – give

come – come – come

go – went – went

write – writ – writ

draw – drawed - drawed

Present Tense forms: the ending -s


Verbs

Irregular verbs: reduction of forms, regularization of verbs

see – seen – seen or see – see – seen

give – give – give

come – come – come

go – went – went

write – writ – writ

draw – drawed - drawed

Present Tense forms: the ending -s

He don’t like it. (East Anglia, American, Caribbean)

He don’t like it. (East Anglia, American, Caribbean)

We goes home. (north of England, south-west, South Wales)


Verbs

Irregular verbs: reduction of forms, regularization of verbs

see – seen – seen or see – see – seen

give – give – give

come – come – come

go – went – went

write – writ – writ

draw – drawed - drawed

Present Tense forms: the ending -s

He don’t like it. (East Anglia, American, Caribbean)

He don’t like it. (East Anglia, American, Carribean)

We goes home. (north of England, south-west, South Wales)

Scotland, Northern Ireland – present : historical present

I go home every day.

I goes down the street. I sees this man.


Negation


  • Negation

  • multiple negation = negative concord

  • in most parts of the British Isles:

  • I didn’t have no dinner.


  • Negation

  • multiple negation = negative concord

  • in most parts of the British Isles:

  • I didn’t have no dinner.

  • ain’t[eɪnt, ɛnt, ɪnt]

  • very common, but not throughout Britain

  • = am not, is not, are not, have/has not < amn’t

  • I ain’t coming. I ain’t done it.


  • Negation

  • multiple negation = negative concord

  • in most parts of the British Isles:

  • I didn’t have no dinner.

  • ain’t[eɪnt, ɛnt, ɪnt]

  • very common, but not throughout Britain

  • = am not, is not, are not, have/has not < amn’t

  • I ain’t coming. I ain’t done it.

  • no, nae, na for not (Scotland):

  • He’s no coming.

  • I’ve nae got it.

  • I cannae go.

  • We do na have one.


  • never as past tense negative:

  • In most parts of British Isles

  • I never went to see him yesterday,

  • You done it. – I never.

  • AUXLIARIES

  • have

  • stative : dynamic use

  • SE: I haven’t any money.I didn’t have coffee with my breakfast.

  • AE: I don’t have any money. I didn’t have coffee with my breakfast,

  • ScE: I haven’t any money. I hadn’t coffee with my breakfast.


  • never as past tense negative:

  • In most parts of British Isles

  • I never went to see him yesterday,

  • You done it. – I never.

  • AUXLIARIES

  • have

  • stative : dynamic use

  • SE: I haven’t any money.I didn’t have coffee with my breakfast.

  • AE: I don’t have any money. I didn’t have coffee with my breakfast,

  • ScE: I haven’t any money. I hadn’t coffee with my breakfast.


  • never as past tense negative:

  • In most parts of British Isles

  • I never went to see him yesterday,

  • You done it. – I never.

  • AUXLIARIES

  • have

  • stative : dynamic use

  • SE: I haven’t any money.I didn’t have coffee with my breakfast.

  • AE: I don’t have any money. I didn’t have coffee with my breakfast,

  • ScE: I haven’t any money. I hadn’t coffee with my breakfast.


  • American, British English: have > have got (informal)

  • Younger speakers > no distinction between stative and dynamic have:

  • Have you got any money? (informal)

  • Have you any money?(formal, older speakers)

  • Do you have any money?(younger speakers)

  • do

  • Full verb, auxiliary function

  • SE: dodiddone

  • Most non-standard d’s:do did (auxiliary)

  • do done done(full verb)

  • You done lots of work, didn’t you? I did. I done it last night.


  • be

  • North-eastern England: is for all persons: I is...

  • Parts of West-Midland: am for all persons: You am...

  • South-western England: be for all persons

  • wozfor all persons; You woz...


  • modal auxiliaries

  • must

  • SE, southern English:

  • deontic: He must do it.He mustn’t do it.

    • He has to do it.He doesn’t have to do it.

    • He’s got to do it.He hasn’t got to do it.

  • epistemic: He must have seen it.He can’t have seen it.

  • Northern English epistemic: He mustn’t be in.

  • Younger speakers: ought (to), used (to) with do

  • They didn’t used to go. (= They used not to go).

  • He doesn’t ought to go. (= He ought not to go)


    • QUESTION TAGS:

    • north-eastern Scotland: same polarity tags:

    • It’ s a fine day, is it?

    • the use of innit as a general tag (marked as slang)


    Contracted forms:

    South of England:

    I haven’t got it.

    She won’t go.

    Doesn’t she like it?

    North of England:

    I’ve not got it.

    She’ll not go.

    Does he not like it?


    SE:

    She gave the man a book.

    She gave him it.

    She gave him the book.

    She gave the book to the man.

    She gave it to him.

    South of England:

    to – prefered if DO is a pronoun

    North of England:

    She gave it him (acceptable in the south)

    She gave it the man (not found in the south)


    PRONUNCIATION

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8mzWkuOxz8

    VARIABILITY WITHIN RP

    Older speakers : younger speakers

    Social classes

    Acquisition of RP

    Conservative (refined) RP

    General RP

    Advanced RP

    Regional RP

    Adoptive RP...


    • Plosives:

    • Little aspiration in the speech of upper-class speakers

    • Glottal stop

    • - before consonants in syllable-final environment:

    • six [sɪʔks] - glottalization

    • - instead of the linking r

    • - realization of word-final or morpheme-final plosives,

    • especially if the next consonant has

    • the same place of articulation: - glottaling

    • get down [geʔ’daʊn]

    • Scotland [‘skɒʔlənd]

    • back garden [bæʔ’gɑ:dn]

      • - Increasing use of [ʔ] instead of [t] in younger speakers


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