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Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Fluoxetine, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents With Depression Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) Team JAMA 2004: Vol 292, No. 7. TADS.

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Treatment for adolescents with depression study tads

Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)


Fluoxetine, Cognitive Behavioral

Therapy, and Their Combination for

Adolescents With Depression

Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) Team

JAMA 2004: Vol 292, No. 7


TADS

  • A randomized controlled trial funded by the National Institute of Mental Health

  • Conducted at 13 academic and community centers in the United States

  • To evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for adolescents with MDD


Participants
Participants

  • 429 patients

  • Age 12 -17 years (mean age 15 years)

  • Primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder (DSM-IV)


Inclusion criteria
Inclusion Criteria

  • Outpatient

  • CDRS ≥ 45

  • IQ ≥ 80

  • Not taking antidepressants

  • Depressive mood in at least 2 contexts for at least 6 weeks prior to consent


Exclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria

  • Bipolar disorder

  • Severe conduct disorder

  • Substance abuse

  • PDD

  • Thought disorder

  • Concurrent psychotropic medications

  • Failed 2 SSRIs or CBT


Exclusion criteria1
Exclusion criteria

Dangerousness to self or others

  • Had been hospitalized for dangerousness within 3 months

  • Suicidal attempt within 6 months

  • Active plan of suicide

  • Suicidal ideation with disorganized family


Participants1
Participants

  • Moderate to severe symptoms

  • Average depressive episode duration - 72 weeks

  • 27% had at least minimal suicidal ideation at baseline


Randomization
Randomization

To 1 of 4 treatments for 12 weeks

  • Fluoxetine alone

  • CBT alone

  • Fluoxetine with CBT

  • Placebo


Randomization1
Randomization

  • Blinding

  • Independent evaluators


Fluoxetine
Fluoxetine

  • 6 medication visits x 20-30 minutes

  • Dosage adjusted

    • Starting dose 10 mg/d

    • Optimum 20 mg/d

    • Maximum 40 mg/d

  • Mean highest dose 30 mg/d


CBT

  • 15 sessions over 12 weeks x 50-60 minutes

  • Psychoeducation

  • Mood monitoring

  • Increasing pleasant activities

  • Social problem solving

  • Cognitive restructuring

  • Parent and family sessions


Outcome assessment
Outcome Assessment

  • Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R)

  • CGI improvement score (much improved or very much improved)

  • Assessed at baseline, week 6, and week12


Outcome assessment1
Outcome Assessment

  • Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS)

  • Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior High School Version (SIQ-Jr)

  • All measures reported acceptable psychometric properties


Harm related adverse event
Harm-Related Adverse Event

  • Harm to self; e.g. cutting

  • Worsening of suicidal ideation

  • Suicidal attempt

  • Harm to others


Suicide related adverse event
Suicide-Related Adverse Event

  • Worsening suicidal ideation

  • Suicidal attempt


Results
Results

  • Combination of fluoxetine with CBT was significantly superior to

    • placebo

    • fluoxetine alone

    • CBT alone


Results1
Results

  • Fluoxetine alone was superior to placebo

  • CBT alone was not superior to placebo

  • Fluoxetine alone was significantly better than CBT alone


Response rate based on cgi
Response Rate Based On CGI

  • 71% in the fluoxetine with CBT

  • 61% in the fluoxetine alone

  • 43% in the CBT alone

  • 35% in the placebo



Results3
Results

“Combination of fluoxetine with CBT is better than fluoxetine alone, which is better than CBT alone, which is equal to placebo”


Suicidal behavior in children receiving ssris
Suicidal Behavior in Children Receiving SSRIs

  • Suicidal ideation decreased in all of the treatment groups

  • 6% of the patients experienced a suicide-related event with no statistically significant difference among the 4 treatment groups

  • Seven patients made a suicide attempt and there were no completed suicides


Suicidal behavior in children receiving ssris1
Suicidal Behavior in Children Receiving SSRIs

  • Harm-related adverse events: increased risk (odds ratio = 2.19) for patients receiving fluoxetine compared with those who were not

  • The odds ratio was higher for fluoxetine alone compared with fluoxetine with CBT.

  • Protective effect for CBT for suicidal ideation


Summary
Summary

  • Combination treatment with fluoxetine and CBT shows highest efficacy

  • CBT is a protective factor for suicide in adolescents receiving fluoxetine


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