The odyssey
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The Odyssey. Epic Poem by Homer. Part I: The Adventures of Odysseus Summary. The Odyssey opens with the Invocation to the Muse . Homer speaks in 1 st person pov asking Calliope (muse of epic poetry) to aid him in the telling of the story.

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The Odyssey

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The odyssey

The Odyssey

Epic Poem by Homer

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the adventures of odysseus summary

Part I: The Adventures of OdysseusSummary

  • The Odyssey opens with the Invocation to the Muse. Homer speaks in 1st person pov asking Calliope (muse of epic poetry) to aid him in the telling of the story.

  • Invocation sums up the action and acts as a “teaser” keeping the audience in suspense.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the adventures of odysseus devices and figurative language

Part I: The Adventures of OdysseusDevices and Figurative Language

  • “man skilled in all ways of contending” -epithet for Odysseus (l.2)

  • “the wanderer” – epithet for Odysseus (l.3)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i sailing from troy summary

Part I: Sailing from TroySummary

  • Odysseus held captive by Calypso and Circe but longed for his wife, Penelope, in his heart.

  • Left Troy, landed on the shores of the Ciconians. Ravaged city and rested.

  • Meanwhile, survivors gathered forces and stormed the beach on horseback.

  • Odysseus lost many men.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i sailing from troy devices and figurative language

Part I: Sailing from TroyDevices and Figurative Language

  • Change in point of view from 1st person of Homer to 1st person of Odysseus.

  • “Laertes’ son” – epithet for Odysseus (l.18)

  • “loveliest among goddesses” – epithet for Calypso (l.30)

  • “the enchantress” – epithet for Circe (l.32)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i sailing from troy devices and figurative language cont

Part I: Sailing from TroyDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • “They came with dawn over that terrain like the leaves and blades of spring.” – simile comparing leaves and grass to the soldiers of Ciconians (ll.53-55)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the lotus eaters summary

Part I: The Lotus EatersSummary

  • Storm is sent by Zeus. Sail for nine days.

  • Land on shore and send three men to check out everything. They don’t return.

  • Odysseus finds them among the Lotus Eaters, a peaceful people that eat lotus and dream all day.

  • He must drag them back to the ship and tie them down. They have forgotten about home.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the lotus eaters devices and figurative language

Part I: The Lotus EatersDevices and Figurative Language

  • “lord of the cloud” – epithet for Zeus (l.70)

  • “…driving veils of squall moved down like night on land and sea.” – simile comparing the storm to night (ll.71-72)

  • “Dawn with ringlet shining…” – personification of Sun (l.39)

  • “honeyed plant” – epithet for Lotus (l.97)

  • Symbol: Lotus is like addictive drugs

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops summary

Part I: The CyclopsSummary

  • Odysseus and 12 men go to the cave because of Odysseus’ curiosity.

  • Polyphemus traps them in the cave and eats 2 of his men. Odysseus prays to Athena; finds an olive tree and makes it into a spear.

  • Upon his return, Odysseus gives him wine.

  • Says name is “Nobody.” They stab out his eye. Other Cyclopes do not help. Polyphemus screams,“Nobody’s hurt me!”

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops summary cont

Part I: The CyclopsSummary (cont.)

  • Opens the cave, tries to capture men escaping.

  • Odysseus has tied men beneath sheep. He rides on the belly of the prize ram.

  • Polyphemus talks to ram and threatens Odysseus’ life.

  • Sailing away, Odysseus yells back his name. Telemus has foretold Polyphemus losing his eye.

  • Prays to Poseidon for punishment.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops devices and figurative language

Part I: The CyclopsDevices and Figurative Language

  • “a cavern yawning” – personification (ll.122-123)

  • “he seemed rather a shaggy mountain” – metaphor (ll. 132-133)

  • “sweet scent hovered like a fume” – simile comparing the smell to a fume (l.150)

  • “cave man” – epithet for Polyphemus (l.172)

  • “who cast your lives like dice” – simile comparing the men to men of chance (ll. 199-200)

  • Dramatic Irony – when Odysseus lies about the ship being crashed on the rocks

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops devices and figurative language cont

Part I: The CyclopsDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • “caught two in his hands like squirming puppies”- simile comparing men being eaten to puppies (l.234)

  • “gaping and crunching like a mountain lion” – simile comparing Polyphemus to a mountain lion (l.237)

  • “lay down like a mast among his sheep” – simile comparing Polyphemus to a mast (l.243)

  • “young Dawn with fingertips of rose” – epithet for Dawn

  • “reset the stone as one would cap a quiver” – simile comparing stone to a quiver cap (l.260)

  • Symbolism in olive tree – Athena’s symbols

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops devices and figurative language cont1

Part I: The CyclopsDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • “like a mast, a lugger of twenty oars” – simile comparing the spear to a mast (l.269)

  • “fire’s heart” – metaphor (l.276)

  • Situational Irony – rams come in for the night

  • Dramatic Irony – Lies about his name

  • Situational Irony – eating him last is not a gift

  • “…and leaned on it as a shipwright…” epic simile comparing Odysseus to a shipwright (ll.331-337)

  • “red-hot… seared… hissed broiling and roots popped” – imagery (ll.338-340)

  • “In a smithy…just as that eyeball hissed…” epic simile comparing Odysseus to a blacksmith (ll.341-344)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops devices and figurative language cont2

Part I: The CyclopsDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • “rock roared” – personification (l.345)

  • “like a charm” – simile comparing the lie to a charm (l.365)

  • “death sat there huge” – personification (l.372)

  • “wooliest ram, choicest of the flock” – symbolism, Odysseus is the leader of the pack (l.383)

  • “Dawn spread out her fingertips of rose” – epithet for Dawn (l.388)

  • Dramatic Irony – Polyphemus does not know that Odysseus is under the ram’s belly

  • Character flaw – Boastful, Pride=HUBRIS

  • “Laertes’ son” “raider of cities” – epithets for Odysseus (ll.459-460)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the cyclops devices and figurative language cont3

Part I: The CyclopsDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • Situational Irony – expected someone large and fierce to take eye, not twiggy and small

  • Verbal Irony – Polyphemus lies and uses reverse psychology to tempt Odysseus

  • “blue girdler of islands” – epithet for Poseidon (l.484)

  • “god of earthquake” – epithet for Poseidon (l.481)

  • Foreshadowing – lose companions, strange sail

  • “Young Dawn with fingertips of rose” – epithet for Dawn (l.519)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the land of the dead summary

Part I: The Land of the DeadSummary

  • Aeolus gives Odysseus a bag of winds. Blows them back to Ithaca.

  • Odysseus tells men not to open; sleeps.

  • Men get curious and greedy, open bag and blown away from Ithaca.

  • Land of Laestrygonians – giant cannibals eat several men. Destroy all but 1 ship.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the land of the dead summary cont

Part I: The Land of the DeadSummary (cont.)

  • Island of Circe – men turned to pigs, spends a year with her.

  • Sails to the Land of the Dead to meet with Tieresias (blind prophet). Sees Elpenor (man who died on Circe’s island) and Anticleia (mother committed suicide).

  • Teiresias gives him advice about the future, warns against Helios’ cattle.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the land of the dead devices and figurative language

Part I: The Land of the DeadDevices and Figurative Language

  • “singing nymph with sunbright hair” – epithet for Circe (l.533)

  • “son of great Laertes” “master mariner and soldier” – epithet for Odysseus (l.587)

  • “prince of Thebes” – epithet for Teiresias (l.620)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Part i the land of the dead devices and figurative language cont

Part I: The Land of the DeadDevices and Figurative Language cont.

  • “son of Laertes and the gods of old” “master of landways and seaways” – epithet for Odysseus (l. 623)

  • “prince of those with the gift of speech” – epithet for Teiresias (l.631)

  • “god who thunders on land” – epithet for Poseidon (l.634)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i the sirens summary

Pt. I: The SirensSummary

  • Circe gives advice about the Sirens.

  • Odysseus plans to hear their song. Puts beeswax in mens’ ears and they bind him to the mast.

  • Odysseus is tempted and tries to get loose; sail past safely.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i the sirens devices and figurative language

Pt. I: The SirensDevices and Figurative Language

  • “singing nymph with sunbright hair” – epithet for Circe (l.682)

  • “tight as a splint” – simile comparing Odysseus as a splint (l. 695)

  • “lord of high noon” – epithet for Helios (l.711)

  • Symbolism – Sirens represent temptation

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i scylla and charybdis summary

Pt. I: Scylla and CharybdisSummary

  • Odysseus’ men fear the sounds of Charybdis. He convinces them to row on.

  • “Haven’t we seen fear before?”

  • They make it past Charybdis, but Scylla eats 6 of his best men.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i scylla and charybdis devices and figurative language

Pt. I: Scylla and CharybdisDevices and Figurative Language

  • Dramatic Irony – we know that Odysseus will make a sacrifice of six men

  • Symbolism – all or nothing – sacrifice

  • “monster of the gray rock” – epithet for Scylla (l.791)

  • “dire gorge of the salt sea-tide” – epithet for Charybdis (l. 798)

  • “fell like rain” – simile comparing the sea to rain (l.802)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i scylla and charybdis devices and figurative language cont

Pt. I: Scylla and CharybdisDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • “rock bellowing” – personification (l.805)

  • Situational Irony – six of his best men are eaten

  • “A man surfcasting… so these were borne aloft.” – epic simile comparing Scylla to a fisherman catching fish (ll. 815-820)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i the cattle of the sun god summary

Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun GodSummary

  • Odysseus and men land of island of Thrinacia.

  • Odysseus reminds men that they have enough food. After a long stay, they run out. Odysseus goes to pray.

  • Eurylochus gives speech encouraging them to eat cattle – die being punished by gods, not by starving.

  • They eat the cattle; Helios asks Zeus to avenge him. Zeus agrees.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i the cattle of the sun god summary cont

Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun GodSummary (cont.)

  • Zeus sends a storm and kills all men, destroys his ship.

  • Odysseus floats back to Charybdis, survives by holding to a branch off a cliff.

  • Escapes Scylla also.

  • Floats to Calypso’s island and is captive for seven years.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i the cattle of the sun god devices and figurative language

Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun GodDevices and Figurative Language

  • “Dawn with fingertips of rose” – epithet (l.833)

  • “Lord of High Noon” – epithet for Helios (l.873)

  • “Overlord of Noon” – epithet for Helios (l.904)

  • “Son of Cronus” – epithet for Zeus (l.931)

  • “whining from the west” – personification (l.941)

  • “like a diver” – simile comparing the soul of a dead man to a diver (l. 947)

  • “bobbing awhile like petrels on the waves” – simile comparing dead bodies to birds (ll. 952-953)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt i the cattle of the sun god devices and figurative language cont

Pt. I: The Cattle of the Sun GodDevices and Figurative Language (cont.)

  • “whirlpool drank the tide” – personification (l.969)

  • “catching on like a bat under a bough” – simile comparing Odysseus to a bat (l. 971)

  • “And, ah!... goes home to supper.” – epic simile comparing Odysseus to a merchant going home (ll.978-982)

  • “Father of gods and men” – epithet for Zeus (l.987)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii twenty years gone summary

Pt. II: Twenty Years GoneSummary

  • Odysseus finishes his story to Alcinous, King of Phaecians.

  • Sails home after 10 years.

  • Suitors have been after his wife, land, and son (planning murder). Meanwhile, Telemachus searches for his father.

  • Athena disguises him as a beggar.

  • Eumaues (swineherd) does not recognize him. Telemachus does with disguise removed.

  • Plan to fight suitors – do not tell women.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii twenty years gone devices and figurative language

Pt. II: Twenty Years GoneDevices and Figurative Language

  • “Son of Laertes and the gods of old” – epithet for Odysseus (l.1009)

  • “master of landways and seaways” – epithet for Odysseus (l.1010)

  • “here you stand like one of the immortals” – simile comparing Odysseus to a god (l.1044)

  • “hope of soldiers” – epithet for Athena (l.1053)

  • “cries burst from both as keen… as those” – epic simile comparing tears of Odysseus and Telemachus to a hawk with babies taken (ll.1063-1065)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii argus summary

Pt. II: ArgusSummary

  • Argus is Odysseus’ dog. He has been disrespected and treated badly. Sits in a pile of dung.

  • When he hears Odysseus’ voice, recognizes him immediately.

  • Wags tail, then dies. Odysseus sheds a tear.

  • Waited for him to return – loyalty.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii argus devices and figurative language

Pt. II: ArgusDevices and Figurative Language

  • Symbolism – treated like dung, lays in dung

  • Dramatic Irony – we know Argus recognizes Odysseus

  • Theme – Loyalty to master

  • Theme – Code of Hospitality

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii the suitors summary

Pt. II: The SuitorsSummary

  • Odysseus enters as the beggar.

  • Antinous, the most arrogant, yells at him and throws a stool. Will not share.

  • Telemachus takes down the weapons.

  • Eurynome comes and takes Odysseus to Penelope’s room.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii the suitors devices and figurative language

Pt. II: The SuitorsDevices and Figurative Language

  • Dramatic Irony – Odysseus is home and not a beggar.

  • Situational Irony – Antinous acts as if he owns the home

  • “like solid rock” – simile comparing Odysseus’ shoulder to a rock (l.1230)

  • “looking like strangers” – simile comparing the beggar to a stranger (l.1257)

  • “heart felt the blow” – metaphor describing how Telemachus is affected by what he saw (l.1262)

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii penelope summary

Pt. II: PenelopeSummary

  • The beggar comes to Penelope’s room to talk and tells her that he has seen her husband.

  • His story tests her faithfulness and dedication.

  • She begins the death shroud test. They find out about it.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii odysseus revenge summary

Pt. II: Odysseus’ RevengeSummary

  • Penelope says she’ll marry any man that can string Odysseus’ bow. Several try and fail.

  • Beggar wants a turn. On first try, strings the bow, shoots arrow through 12 axe handles.

  • 2nd shot hits Antinous in throat and kills him; suitors believe it an accident.Reveals himself – Promises death to all.

  • Eurymachus attempts a bribe.

  • All suitors killed with help from Eumaeus, Philoetius, Telemachus and Athena.

Melissa Biggs 2010


Pt ii penelope reunited summary

Pt. II: Penelope (Reunited)Summary

  • Penelope is unsure about Odysseus. Cautious, doesn’t want to be tricked.

  • Tests him. Asks for the bed to be moved to the hallway.

  • Odysseus upset. He made the bed from a tree rooted to the spot. Proves his identity.

  • Love each other… happily ever after.

Melissa Biggs 2010


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