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### Technical Drawing Tools

Why Study Drafting?

- Drafting is a form of graphic communication
- “A picture is worth a thousand words.”

Drafting as a Language

- Drafting is called a “universal language”
- Symbols (lines and figures) have specific meaning are used
- The symbols accurately describe the shape, size, material, finish, and fabrication or assembly of a product

Drafting as a Language

- Drafting is also the “language of industry”
- Industry uses this precise language because the drawings must communicate the information the designer had in mind to those who produce the product.

CAD

- Computer Aided Design

CAD Plotters

- When a design is complete, high-speed plotters or printers turn out hard (paper) copies showing the part or design.

Fields of Drafting

- Aerospace
- Architectural
- Automotive
- Electrical
- Electronic
- Printed circuitry design
- Topographical
- ETC…
- Yes! IT IS EVERYWHERE!!

Drafting Equipment

- PENCIL
- F, 2H, or HB
- Paper
- 8 ½ x 11 in.
- Graph paper—cross-sectional or isometric

Instructions

- In sketching, a line is drawn by making a series of short strokes.

1st: SKETCH CONSTRUCTION LINES

2ND: COMPLETE BY SKETCHING IN DESIRED WEIGHT LINE

Alphabet of Lines

- A drafter uses lines of various weights (thicknesses) to make a drawing.
- Each line has a special meaning.
- Contrast between the various line weights or thicknesses help to make a drawing easier to read.
- It is essential that you learn this ALPHABET OF LINES

Alphabet of Lines

- Construction and Guide Lines
- Construction lines are used to lay out drawings
- Guide lines are used when lettering to help you keep the lettering uniform in height.
- These lines are drawn lightly using a pencil with the lead sharpened to a long conical point.

Alphabet of Lines

- Border Line
- The border line is the heaviest (thickest) line in sketching.
- First, draw light construction lines as a guide.
- Then, go over them using a pencil with a heavy rounded point to provide the border lines.

Alphabet of Lines

- Object Line
- The object line is a heavy line, but slightly less in thickness than the boarder line.
- The object line indicates visible edges.
- In sketching object lines, use a pencil with a medium lead and a rounded point.

PRACTICE

- Let’s Practice!!
- Sketch on Plate 3-2
- Construction Lines
- Border Lines
- DO NOT SKETCH ADDITIONAL LINES YET!!!

Alphabet of Lines

- Hidden Line
- Hidden lines are used to indicate or show the hidden features of a part.
- The hidden line is made up of a series of dashes (1/8 in.) with (1/16 in.) between the dashes

Alphabet of Lines

- Dimension Line
- Dimension lines generally terminate (end) with arrowheads at the ends.
- They are usually placed between two extension lines.
- A break is made, usually in the center, to place the dimension.
- The dimension line is placed from ¼ in. to ½ in. away from the drawing.
- It is a fine line and is drawn using a pencil sharpened to a long conical point

2

Alphabet of Lines

EXTENSION LINE

- Extension lines
- Extension lines are the same weight as dimension lines.
- These lines indicate points from which the dimensions are given.
- The extension line begins 1/16 in. away from the view and extends 1/8 in. past the last dimension line.

2

PRACTICE

- Let’s PRACTICE
- Try to draw this multi-view drawing.
- Label all of the lines that we have learned so far!

Alphabet of Lines

- Centerline
- Centerlines are made up of alternate long (3/4 in. to 1 ½ in.) and short (1/8 in.) dashes with 1/16 in. spaces between.
- These are drawn about the same weight as dimension and extension lines, and are used to locate centers of symmetrical objects.

Alphabet of Lines

- Cutting-Plane Line
- A cutting-plane line indicates where an object has been cut to show interior features.
- Two types are used:
- ¼ in. dashes with 1/16 in. spacing
- A long dash (3/4 in. to 1 ½ in.), then two short dashes (1/8 in.) with 1/16 in. spacing.
- Draw the cutting-plane line slightly heavier than an object line, using a pencil with a rounded point.

Alphabet of Lines

- Section Line
- Section lines are used when drawing inside features of an object to indicate the surfaces exposed by the cutting-plane line.
- Section lines are also used to indicate general classification of materials. These lines, light in weight, are drawn with a pencil sharpened to a long conical point.

Alphabet of Lines

- Phantom Lines
- Phantom lines are used to show alternating positions of a moving part, repeated details, or the path of motion of an object.
- The line weight is the same as centerlines.
- A phantom line consists of dashes ¾ in. to 1 ½ in. long, separated by a set of two short (1/8 in.) dashes.

PRACTICE!!

- Let’s Practice!!
- Complete the rest of the sections on Plate 3-2
- Grab a ruler—practice with plate 5-1!

All around

Sheet Layout for Sketching- Sketch a ½ in. border around the edges of the paper. Use a construction line. The sheet should be 8 ½ in. by 11 in. It may be plain or graph paper. Sketch in guide lines.

Sheet Layout for Sketching, Continued…

- The edge of your drawing board or desk may be used as a guide in sketching the boarder and guide lines. Place the pencil in a fixed position and move your fingers along the edge of the drawing board or desk.
- Sketch a boarder line over the construction lines, letter in information as shown on next slide…
- Remember to take your time and sketch in the border and information carefully and neatly.

Measurements

- Review

How to Sketch a Horizontal Line

- Mark off two points spaced a distance equal to the length of the line to be drawn. The points should be parallel to the top or bottom edge of your paper.
- Move your pencil back and forth and connect these points with a construction line.
- Start from the left point and sketch an object line to the right point. This line is sketched over the construction line.

*Yellow color indicates guides, not necessarily actual lines to be drawn.

How to Sketch a Vertical Line

- Mark off two points spaced a distance equal to the length of the line to be drawn. The two points should be parallel to the right or left edge of the sheet. Move your pencil back and forth and connect these points with a construction line.
- Start from the top point and sketch down and over the construction line to draw the desired line.
- Vertical lines can also be sketched by rotating the paper into a horizontal position and proceeding as explained in How to sketch a Horizontal Line.

How to Sketch an Inclined Line

- Mark off two points at the desired angle. Connect these points with a construction line.
- Sketch the desired weight line over the construction line. Sketch in the directions illustrated.
- Sketch up when the line inclines to the right.
- Sketch down when the line inclines to the left.

How to Sketch an Inclined Line, Continued…

- Inclined lines can also be sketched by rotating the sheet so the points are in a horizontal position. Sketch the line as previously described.
- For some sketching problems, it may be earlier to rotate the paper so the points are in a vertical position. Proceed as explained in How to Sketch a Vertical Line.

How to Sketch Squares and Rectangles

- Sketch a horizontal line and a vertical line (axes).
- Begin at the intersection of these lines and lay out equal units on both lines in each direction.
- For example: If you want to draw a 2 ½ in. square, you would estimate a unit of ¼ in. and mark off five of these units on the vertical axis above and below the horizontal axis. Lay out the horizontal axis in the same manner.

How to Sketch Squares and Rectangles, Continued…

- Sketch construction lines through the desired points.
- Go over the construction lines forming the square to produce the desired weight line.
- Rectangles are sketched in the same way except that you will have more units on one axis (line) than the other axis (line).

How to Sketch Angles

- Sketch vertical and horizontal construction lines. These lines will form a 90 degree or right angle.
- A 45 degree angle is sketched

by marking off equal number of units on both lines. Connect the last unit of each line. This will form a 45 degree angle with the vertical and the horizontal lines.

How to Sketch Angles, Continued…

- To sketch 30 and 60 degree angles, mark off three units on one line and five units on the other line. Connecting the last unit on each line will give the required angles.

300

600

How to Sketch Angles, Continued…

- Other angles may be drawn by sketching an angle and subdividing this into the approximate number of degrees required. Example: dividing a 30 degree angle into thirds will give a 10 degree angle.

100

How to Sketch Angles, Continued…

- Another method used to develop angles in sketching is to sketch a quart circle and divide the resulting arc into the desired divisions.

Example: Dividing the arc into three parts will give 30 and 60 degree angles.

300

How to Sketch Circles

- Sketch vertical, horizontal, and inclined axes.
- Mark off units equal to the radius of the required circle on each axis.

How to Sketch Circles, Continued…

- The radius units can be quickly and accurately located by marking off the desired radius on a piece of paper and using the paper as a measuring tool.

How to Sketch Circles, Continued…

- Sketch a construction line through the points. When satisfied with the construction line, fill it in with a line of the desired weight.

How to Sketch an Arc

- Sketch a right (90 degree) angle. Use construction lines.
- Units equal to the length of the desired radius are marked on each leg of the angle. Connect these points with a construction line.

How to Sketch an Arc, Continued…

- Divide this line into two equal parts. Starting from the point where the legs of the angle intersect, sketch a line through the dividing point of the diagonal line.

How to Sketch an Arc, Continued…

- Mark off a point half way between the diagonal line and the intersection of the legs of the angle. Sketch an arc through the three points as shown.

How to Sketch an Ellipse

- Sketch horizontal and vertical lines as shown. Mark off equal size units on the centerlines to construct a rectangle with the dimensions equal to the major axis (the long axis) and the minor axis (the small axis) of the desired ellipse.

How to Sketch an Ellipse, Continued…

- Construct the rectangle by sketching construction lines through the outer points.

How to Sketch an Ellipse, Continued…

- Lightly sketch arcs tangent to the lines that form the rectangle.
- When you are satisfied with the shape of the ellipse, complete it by going over the construction lines with lines of the desired weight.

How to Sketch a Hexagon

- Sketch vertical and horizontal centerlines, and inclined lines at 30 and 60 degrees. Construct a circle with a diameter equal to the distance across the flats of the required hexagon. Use construction lines.

600

300

How to Sketch a Hexagon, Continued…

- Sketch horizontal parallel lines at right angles (90 degree) to the vertical centerline. The lines are tangent to the circle at these points.

How to Sketch a Hexagon, Continued…

- Sketch inclined parallel lines at 60 degrees and tangent to the circle at the point where the 30 degree inclined line intersects the circle.

How to Sketch a Hexagon, Continued…

- Complete the hexagon and go over the construction lines to produce the proper weight line.

How to Sketch an Octagon

- Sketch vertical and horizontal centerlines and inclined lines at 45 degrees. Construct a circle with a diameter equal to the distance across the flats of the required octagon. Use construction lines.

How to Sketch an Octagon, Continued…

- Sketch parallel lines tangent to the circle where the horizontal and vertical centerlines intersect the circle.

Sketch inclined parallel lines at 45 degree and tangent to the circle at the point where the 45 degree inclined lines intersect the circle.How to Sketch an Octagon, Continued…

How to Sketch an Octagon, Continued…

- Complete the octagon and go over the construction lines to produce the desired weight line.

Lettering

- Lettering is used on drawings to give dimensions and other pertinent information needed to fully describe the item.
- The lettering must be neat and legible if it is to be easily read and understood.
- A drawing will be improved by good lettering.
- However, a good drawing will look sloppy and unprofessional if the lettering is poorly done.

Lettering, Continued…

- The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) recommends that the Single-Stroke Gothic Alphabet be the accepted lettering standard

Lettering, Continued…

- It can be drawn rapidly and is highly legible because each part of every letter is made by a single stroke.

Lettering, Continued…

- This is because there are no serifs on the letters of this alphabet.
- A serif is like a tiny foot on a letter; alphabets that have serifs are more difficult to letter by hand. An alphabet without serifs is always called a san serif alphabet.

Lettering, Continued…

- Today, because of computers, there are many different alphabet styles (also called fonts).
- When lettering a drawing, if the single stroke Gothic alphabet is not available, choose a san serif font and use only upper case letters.

INCLINED GUIDE LINES HELP KEEP INCLINED LETTERING UNIFORM

Good Lettering, Continued…- Use guide lines
- Guide lines should be drawn so lightly they will not show up on a print made from the drawing
- Vertical guide lines may be used to assure that the letters will be vertical
- Inclined guide lines are drawn at 67 1/20 to the horizontal line when inclined lettering is to be used.

AVOID COMbINING SEVERAL fORMS Of LETTERING.

Good Lettering, Continued…- Only one form of lettering should appear on a drawing.

Lettering, Continued…

- Spacing:
- Proper spacing of the letters is important.
- The letters should be placed so spaces between the letters appear to be about the same.

SPACED VISUALLY

SPACED BY MEASURING

PRACTICE!!!!

- Complete the practice lettering worksheets according to the directions!

Identify common drawing tools

Describe use of common tools

Demonstrate use of common tools

Describe proper care of drawing tools

Explain safety rules when using these tools

Instrument Drawing

- Provides detailed size & shape information necessary for production
- Inexpensive way of communicating technical information about a product in visual form

Drawing Surfaces

- Drawing board: portable & able to be used with a T-Square
- Drawing table: drawing board surface & top can be tilted

Attaching Paper to Drawing Surface

- Should align paper with the T-square & wrinkle-free surface
- Drafting Tape: has low adhesion & is not likely to tear paper when removed

T-square

- Used for horizontal lines & as a guide for other instruments

Triangles

- Tool for drawing vertical & inclined lines
- 45° Triangle
- 30°-60° Triangle

Protractor

- Used for drawing inclined lines & angles

Compass

- Tool for drawing circles & arcs

French Curve

- Also called an Irregular curve
- Consists of a variety of curves that can be used when arcs are not satisfactory

Divider

- Looks like a compass, but both legs have steel pints at the end
- Tool used for measurement purposes

Templates

- Used to help in drawing shapes & symbols
- Templates for producing squares, ellipses triangles, etc.

Care of Tools

- Store in cabinet when not in use
- Do not cut against edge of plastic tools
- Keep wooden tools & boards clean
- Occasionally check t-squares for blade alignment

Drawing Instrument Safety

- Pass, do not throw, tools
- Use tools with points, such as the compass & dividers, only as directed
- Use knives as directed & store them in proper containers

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings

- Imagine that you have an object suspended by transparent threads inside a glass box, as in figure 3.

Figure 3 - The block suspended in a glass box

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…

- Then draw the object on each of three faces as seen from that direction. Unfold the box (figure 4) and you have the three views. We call this an "orthographic" or "multiview" drawing.

Figure 4 - The creation of an orthographic multiview drawing

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…

- Figure 5 shows how the three views appear on a piece of paper after unfolding the box.

Figure 5 - A multiview drawing and its explanation

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…

- Which views should one choose for a multiview drawing?
- The views that reveal every detail about the object. Three views are not always necessary; we need only as many views as are required to describe the object fully.

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…

- For example, some objects need only two views, while others need four. The circular object in figure 6 requires only two views.

Figure 6 - An object needing only two orthogonal views

PRACTICE!!!

- Complete the views from the drawings provided!!

Transferring Points

- Each view must show a minimum of two dimensions.
- Any two views of an object will have at least one dimension in common.
- Time can be saved if a dimension from one view is projected to the other view instead of measuring the dimension a second time.

*Tip* Transfer the points with construction lines!

Transferring Points, Continued…

- Additional time can be saved in transferring the depth of the top view to the side view.
- Projection provides for greater accuracy in the alignment of the views & it is faster than measuring each view separately with a scale or dividers.

450

Practice!!!

- Try to draw to draw this object using the transferring points method on one of the sheets of graph paper.
- MAKE SURE TO SET UP YOUR PAPER PROPERLY!!

DEPTH

HEIGHT

How to Center a Drawing on the Sheet- A drawing looks more professional if the views are evenly spaced and centered on the drawing sheet.
- Centering the views on a sheet is not difficult if the following procedure is used:

- Examine the object to be drawn. Observe its dimensions—width, depth, and height.

How to Center a Drawing on the Sheet

- Allow approximately one inch between views.
- With light construction lines, lightly mark off your paper to include the width of the front view + 1” + depth of right side.
- These markers will give you your starting points for the front and right side.
- Add the height to the right view + 1” + depth of top view = total height of drawing.

PRACTICE!!!

- Try to center your multiview drawing of the following picture!

PRATICE!

- Create multiview drawings of two objects of your choice from the sheets provided.
- Make sure to set up your drawing space!
- And use your construction lines!

Created by: Carolyn Smith

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