Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands. Agnes Elling United against homophobia in sports : The role of academic and policy based research in Europe. Types of research.
Academic and policy research onhomonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands
Types of research
1. Academic research mainlysocio-critical and post structuralist (eg. Caudwell): - socialexclusion of LGBT’s- (de)construction of gender and sexuality- partlyaction research (cf Anderson)2. Policybased/oriented research:- LG(B) sport participation and experiences- acceptance LG(B)-inclusion in sport (straight perspective)- (international comparative) policyinterventions- descriptive- effect studies
Dutch policybasedacademic research
fundedbyMinistries of Sports (VWS) and/orEmancipation (OCW)
- LG (B) sportsparticipation and experiences of discrimination:- University of Amsterdam - Hekma (1998)- Mulier Institute - Janssens et al (2003), Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010)- Social and Cultural Planning Office (Bos, 2006; Kooiman, 2012)- acceptance LG(B) inclusion in sport (straight perspective) - Mulier Institute - Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010)
Findings Dutch research
quantitative and qualitative
- General acceptancehomosexuality in Dutch society ánd sport - Somestructuraldifferences in sportsparticipation: especially gay men lessactive in club and team sports- General experiences of conditionalacceptance: avoidance of perceived intolerant places (sportophobia)- General climate of gendernormativity: ‘butches’ and ‘sissies’ leastaccepted
Sportsparticipation, bygender /sexuality 2010 (n=474), %
Openness and experiencedsafety, homo/bisexual sport participants (n=474), bygender and sexuality (% agree)
Opinions Dutch sports participants (> 11 times a year) (n=1.110), %
‘In my sport group it is not uncommon that jokes or remarks are made about homosexuals’
Dutch population active within a sports group 15-70 year (n=847), in % (totally) agree
‘In competitive club sport, male homosexuality is still a big taboo’ by gender and sexuality, in % (totally) agree
Findingsethnographicstudy mens’ sport team (n=164 observations)
“About a commonaquaintance of two team members: ‘hereally has becomesuch a faggot, reallydisgusting, ehhhhhhh’.” (Niek, gay, korfball) “Don’t look at me likethat, youpervert”“You have to go to changing room three” “OtherbenchHessel!”(Hessel, gay, rugby; remarksafter coming out)“At the victory party of the club I nearly was beatenbecausesomeguys had toldtheir team memberthat I fanciedhim. He grabbed me and I was luckythathis team members held him, otherwise I would have gotten a few blows.” (Victor, gay, quittwith baseball)
Ideologies, Facts and Interpretations
Who is on turn?
- gay men coming out
- makingsports culture more inclusive
What kind of studies/data are lacking
- in your country? - in Europe?
Is Europeanpolicyoncombatinghomophobia in sportsbasedon sound research?