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Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands. Agnes Elling United against homophobia in sports : The role of academic and policy based research in Europe. Types of research.

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Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Academic and policy research onhomonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands

Agnes EllingUnited againsthomophobia in sports: The role of academic and policybased research in Europe


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Types of research

1. Academic research mainlysocio-critical and post structuralist (eg. Caudwell): - socialexclusion of LGBT’s- (de)construction of gender and sexuality- partlyaction research (cf Anderson)2. Policybased/oriented research:- LG(B) sport participation and experiences- acceptance LG(B)-inclusion in sport (straight perspective)- (international comparative) policyinterventions- descriptive- effect studies  


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Dutch policybasedacademic research

fundedbyMinistries of Sports (VWS) and/orEmancipation (OCW)

- LG (B) sportsparticipation and experiences of discrimination:- University of Amsterdam - Hekma (1998)- Mulier Institute - Janssens et al (2003), Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010)- Social and Cultural Planning Office (Bos, 2006; Kooiman, 2012)- acceptance LG(B) inclusion in sport (straight perspective) - Mulier Institute - Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010)


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Findings Dutch research

quantitative and qualitative

- General acceptancehomosexuality in Dutch society ánd sport - Somestructuraldifferences in sportsparticipation: especially gay men lessactive in club and team sports- General experiences of conditionalacceptance: avoidance of perceived intolerant places (sportophobia)- General climate of gendernormativity: ‘butches’ and ‘sissies’ leastaccepted


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Sportsparticipation, bygender /sexuality 2010 (n=474), %


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Openness and experiencedsafety, homo/bisexual sport participants (n=474), bygender and sexuality (% agree)


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Opinions Dutch sports participants (> 11 times a year) (n=1.110), %


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

‘In my sport group it is not uncommon that jokes or remarks are made about homosexuals’

Dutch population active within a sports group 15-70 year (n=847), in % (totally) agree


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

‘In competitive club sport, male homosexuality is still a big taboo’ by gender and sexuality, in % (totally) agree


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Findingsethnographicstudy mens’ sport team (n=164 observations)

  • 2/8 heterosexual and 5/11 homosexualparticipatoryobservershardly/nohomosexualrelatedcomments

  • Someother teams ‘gay’ as generalfiller: “After a winning match: ‘This was a goodone, gays’” (Diederik, straight, baseball)

  • Butmainlysimilar to ‘weak’/’effeminate’:“To a opponent wholay down afteranoffence: ‘Heyfag, get up” (Cees, gay, football)“Sungabout the goal keeper of the opponent who blow driedhishairafter the game: ‘He is queer’.” (Maarten, straight, handball).


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

  • Tough ‘jokes’, violence

“About a commonaquaintance of two team members: ‘hereally has becomesuch a faggot, reallydisgusting, ehhhhhhh’.” (Niek, gay, korfball) “Don’t look at me likethat, youpervert”“You have to go to changing room three” “OtherbenchHessel!”(Hessel, gay, rugby; remarksafter coming out)“At the victory party of the club I nearly was beatenbecausesomeguys had toldtheir team memberthat I fanciedhim. He grabbed me and I was luckythathis team members held him, otherwise I would have gotten a few blows.” (Victor, gay, quittwith baseball)


Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the netherlands

Discussion

Ideologies, Facts and Interpretations

Who is on turn?

- gay men coming out

- makingsports culture more inclusive

What kind of studies/data are lacking

- in your country? - in Europe?

Is Europeanpolicyoncombatinghomophobia in sportsbasedon sound research?


Agnes elling machartzki a elling@mulierinstituut nl

Agnes [email protected]


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