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Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands. Agnes Elling United against homophobia in sports : The role of academic and policy based research in Europe. Types of research.

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Academic and policy research onhomonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands

Agnes EllingUnited againsthomophobia in sports: The role of academic and policybased research in Europe


Types of research

1. Academic research mainlysocio-critical and post structuralist (eg. Caudwell): - socialexclusion of LGBT’s - (de)construction of gender and sexuality - partlyaction research (cf Anderson)2. Policybased/oriented research: - LG(B) sport participation and experiences - acceptance LG(B)-inclusion in sport (straight perspective) - (international comparative) policyinterventions - descriptive - effect studies  


Dutch policybasedacademic research

fundedbyMinistries of Sports (VWS) and/orEmancipation (OCW)

- LG (B) sportsparticipation and experiences of discrimination: - University of Amsterdam - Hekma (1998) - Mulier Institute - Janssens et al (2003), Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010) - Social and Cultural Planning Office (Bos, 2006; Kooiman, 2012)- acceptance LG(B) inclusion in sport (straight perspective) - Mulier Institute - Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010)


Findings Dutch research

quantitative and qualitative

- General acceptancehomosexuality in Dutch society ánd sport - Somestructuraldifferences in sportsparticipation: especially gay men lessactive in club and team sports- General experiences of conditionalacceptance: avoidance of perceived intolerant places (sportophobia)- General climate of gendernormativity: ‘butches’ and ‘sissies’ leastaccepted


Sportsparticipation, bygender /sexuality 2010 (n=474), %


Openness and experiencedsafety, homo/bisexual sport participants (n=474), bygender and sexuality (% agree)


Opinions Dutch sports participants (> 11 times a year) (n=1.110), %


In my sport group it is not uncommon that jokes or remarks are made about homosexuals’

Dutch population active within a sports group 15-70 year (n=847), in % (totally) agree


‘In competitive club sport, male homosexuality is still a big taboo’ by gender and sexuality, in % (totally) agree


Findings big tabooethnographicstudy mens’ sport team (n=164 observations)

  • 2/8 heterosexual and 5/11 homosexualparticipatoryobservershardly/nohomosexualrelatedcomments

  • Someother teams ‘gay’ as generalfiller: “After a winning match: ‘This was a goodone, gays’” (Diederik, straight, baseball)

  • Butmainlysimilar to ‘weak’/’effeminate’:“To a opponent wholay down afteranoffence: ‘Heyfag, get up” (Cees, gay, football)“Sungabout the goal keeper of the opponent who blow driedhishairafter the game: ‘He is queer’.” (Maarten, straight, handball).


  • Tough big taboo ‘jokes’, violence

“About a commonaquaintance of two team members: ‘hereally has becomesuch a faggot, reallydisgusting, ehhhhhhh’.” (Niek, gay, korfball) “Don’t look at me likethat, youpervert”“You have to go to changing room three” “OtherbenchHessel!”(Hessel, gay, rugby; remarksafter coming out)“At the victory party of the club I nearly was beatenbecausesomeguys had toldtheir team memberthat I fanciedhim. He grabbed me and I was luckythathis team members held him, otherwise I would have gotten a few blows.” (Victor, gay, quittwith baseball)


Discussion big taboo

Ideologies, Facts and Interpretations

Who is on turn?

- gay men coming out

- makingsports culture more inclusive

What kind of studies/data are lacking

- in your country? - in Europe?

Is Europeanpolicyoncombatinghomophobia in sportsbasedon sound research?



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