Argumentative writing
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ARGUMENTATIVE writing. Directions: You will complete 3 tasks total for your argumentative writing lesson. Task #1: read carefully over the following slides, taking notes on your “Argumentative Essay Notes”. ARGUMENTATION.

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ARGUMENTATIVE writing

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Argumentative writing

ARGUMENTATIVE writing

Directions: You will complete 3 tasks total for your argumentative writing lesson.

Task #1: read carefully over the following slides, taking notes on your “Argumentative Essay Notes”


Argumentation

ARGUMENTATION

  • The aim of writing argumentative writing is to:convince or persuade the reader.

  • One attempts to change the reader’s mind and convince the reader to agree with the point of view or claim of the writer.

  • So an argumentative essay needs to be highly persuasive and logical.


Key terms to learn

Argumentation _____

Refutation _____

Proponent _____

Opponent _____

Counter Argument (CON) ____

(aka Counter claim)

Pro Argument (PRO) _____

Key Terms to Learn

1. a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it

2. the act or process of forming reasons, drawing conclusions, and applying them to acase in discussion

3. point or statement that supports one’s ideas and/or thesis

4. point or statement in opposition to the argument being made in a written documentor speech

5. the process of discrediting the arguments thatoppose your thesis statement

6. someone who argues in favor of something; advocate

2

5

6

1

4

3


What are the goals of argumentation

WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF ARGUMENTATION?

  • present an opinion on a controversial topic to the reader;

  • explain, clarify and illustrate that opinion;

  • persuade the reader that the opinion supported in the essay is valid by:

    a. moving the reader to action,

    b. convincing the reader that the opinion is correct, or

    c. persuading the reader that the opinion is at least worth considering;

  • support the opinion by means of giving evidence: facts, examples, physical description, support of authority, and statistics;

  • present counterarguments to the thesis (belief statement) and refute them respectfully and critically.


Arguable or not arguable

Arguable or Not Arguable?

  • Marijuana should be legalized.

    • Arguable

      Smoking is harmful to people’s health.

    • Not Arguable

  • Salem is the best school in the district.

    • Arguable

  • Emissions testing hurts the ozone.

    • Not arguable


  • Gather data to support your claim

    Gather Data to Support Your Claim

    • Complete research as necessary

    • Use appropriate web sites

    • Make sure your experts are valid

    • Prepare your Works Cited page and your parenthetical citations (Source Notes) in advance


    Logos pathos and ethos

    Logos, Pathos, and Ethos

    • Logos-logical appeal

      • Evidence and the reasoning based on that evidence

    • Ethos-ethical appeal

      • According to Aristotle--the credibility or trustworthiness that the author establishes in his writing

    • Pathos-Emotional appeal

      • Persuades the audience by using emotions


    Argumentative writing

    Now go to the next handout in your packet (page 2 of Argumentative essay notes) and complete it using the following slides……


    Introduction 1 paragraph

    Introduction (1 paragraph)

    • 1-Get the attention of the audience

      • Attention Getter or Hook

    • 2-Provide background information to orient the reader to the issue

      • What does the reader need to know about this issue?

      • Define terms

    • 3-Create a thesisstatement or assertion to guide the reader (this is what you believe- the main focus of the essay that will guide your points. This is called the PRO of the argument).


    Argumentative writing

    The Antithesis= antithesis(=against the thesis (pro side); the “other” side of the argument; this is the CON side)

    • Address the case of the opposition

      • Several paragraphs at the beginning or weaved throughout the paper (argument-concession)

    • Concede points which cannot be refuted

      • Use signal words and phrases such as Admittedly, While it is true that etc.

    • Offer refutation for claims which can be countered

      • Use signal words and phrases such as It has been argued, However etc.


    Body paragraphs 3 total

    Body Paragraphs (3 total)

    • Provide a clear topic sentence for each paragraph

    • 3 ways to organize the body:

      -use Topic Sentence, Concrete Detail, Commentary (TS, CD, COMM) or

      -Statement, Evidence, Explanation (S-E-E) or

      -Claim, Data, Warrant (CDW)

    • Build to the strongest argument

    • Use a variety of appeals

    • Demonstrate logic and reasoning

    • Address the opposition


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • Restate your main premise

    • Provide a brief summary of your argument

    • Show how a group will benefit from following your assertion

    • Explain what might happen if your idea is not accepted

    • End with a rhetorical question

    • Ask for a call to action


    Practice a sample argument essay

    Practice: a Sample Argument Essay

    • 1-Go to the class website and click on “Sample Essays for pg. 4 of packet.”

    • 2-Read the annotated essays and highlight your handout to match it.

    • 3-Next, review the following items, markingthese in your handout (use your notes if you need help):

      • attention getter

      • organization

      • antithesis—con

      • how author refutes the con

      • connective words—transitions

      • development of arguments

      • slippery slope metaphor

      • conclusion


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