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Chapter 8. BIG Business and Cities. Lesson 1. Timeframe: 1856-1900 Vocabulary: corporation, competition, monopoly, labor union, strike

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8


Business and Cities

Lesson 1

Lesson 1

  • Timeframe: 1856-1900

  • Vocabulary: corporation, competition, monopoly, labor union, strike

  • Main Ideas: Inventions changed people’s lives. Businesses produced more goods, hired more people, and earned more money than ever. Workers united to improve working conditions.

Inventions of the 1800s

Inventions of the 1800s

  • Saved time and money and improved life for many people

  • Elijah McCoy-oil cup-kept trains running

  • Remington-typewriter-saved time with letters and reports

  • Margaret Knight-paper bags-easier to carry items



  • Alexander Graham Bell-phone-made communication easier and faster

  • Thomas Edison-electric light +

    clean, safe, and brighter lights kept city factories and stores open after dark

    *Business grew and changed with these inventions.

Big business men

Big Business Men

  • Henry Bessemer-Bessemer process-made steel in an inexpensive way

  • Andrew Carnegie-used Bessemer process to make steel railroads-also bought other businesses to help his business

  • John D Rockefeller-Standard Oil Company-a corporation



  • Other people give money to run business-called owning “shares” and corporation pays other people part of their profit

  • Raised money by selling shares but buying shares was risky

  • Competition between companies led to monopolies-when a company has no competition



  • Competition keeps prices low and quality of items good because people have a lot of choices

  • In 1879, 90% of the US oil belonged to Rockefeller-he had eliminated his competition and became one of the richest people in the world



  • Carnegie and Rockefeller gave lots of time and money to charity

  • Carnegie paid for libraries

  • Rockefeller paid for schools, churches and hospitals



  • Machines made goods at lower prices

  • People bought large amounts of goods

  • Factories grew larger and more productive

  • Many people were hired to work in the factories

Factory life

Factory Life

  • Same thing for 10-12 hours a day for 6 days a week

  • Unsafe and dirty

  • Children (age 10-15) dropped out of school to work and make money

  • Poor paychecks

  • Fired if you complained

Labor union

Labor Union

  • Workers united to demand better working conditions and better pay

  • Knights of Labor-1st labor union-worked to make it illegal for children to work in factories

  • Workers used strikes (refusing to work) to get business to make changes

  • AFL Samuel Gompers

Lesson 2

Lesson 2

  • Timeframe: 1890-1924

  • Vocabulary: persecution, ethnic group, tenement

  • Main Ideas: Millions of immigrants moved to the US. Immigrants moved to large cities and worked in factories.



  • Immigrant is a person that leaves their homeland to live elsewhere-usually to make their life better

  • In 44 years, 25 MILLION immigrants came to the United States from all over the world. They were looking for work. Some escaped persecution. Most received greater political freedom.

Ellis island

Ellis Island

  • Immigrants from Europe arrived at Ellis Island in New York Harbor. They had to have plans for a home and work. They also had to pass a medical physical.

  • Almost all European immigrants were eventually allowed to enter the US

Angel island

Angel Island

  • Immigrants from Asia arrived at Angel Island in the San Francisco Bay, CA

  • Faced prejudice

  • About 25% were forced to return home to their original countries

  • U.S. became known as the “melting pot” with many different cultures mixed in it

Welcome to the united states

Welcome to the United States

  • Immigrants settled near family or friends and developed immigrant communities in big cities

  • Ethnic neighborhoods were made up of people that practiced the same culture and language

  • Living conditions were dangerous and dirty in tenement housing

Hard times

Hard Times

  • Very little pay

  • Crowded, dirty and unsafe which brought sickness and disease

  • Prejudice about different culture

  • Prejudice about possibility of loosing jobs to immigrants that accept less pay

Immigration laws

Immigration Laws

  • 1882 Congress limited immigration with Chinese Exclusion Act-kept out almost all new Asian immigrants

  • 1920s Congress limited the number of European immigrants

  • But immigrants brought great ideas and inventions to make our country unique

Statue of liberty

Statue of Liberty

  • Gift from France

  • Sculpted by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi

  • Symbol of friendship and freedom

  • 151 feet high and 225 tons in the center of NY Harbor

  • Poem by Emma Lazarus engraved on it

  • Torch uses 13,000 watts of light symbolizing freedom

Lady liberty

Lady Liberty

  • Seven spikes stand for the seven seas and seven continents

  • Tablet in her hand is engraved July 4, 1776 in Roman numberals

    “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free”

Lesson 3

Lesson 3

  • Timeframe: 1880-1924

  • Vocabulary: stockyard, skyscraper, rapid transit, slum, settlement house

  • Main Ideas: Cities grew quickly thanks to technology. Crowded cities increased problems.

Living in the city

Living in the City

  • Immigrants moved to cities and Americans left the rural farms for the city life also

  • Farms used machines instead of people

  • In 1880, 72% US population lived in rural America.

  • In 1920, 49% US population lived in rural America.

Great locations

Great Locations

  • Chicago grew due to transportation routes, natural resources and Lake Michigan

  • Goods could be shipped or put on a train to deliver all over America

  • Cities with great resources and good transportation became very popular

City changes

City Changes

  • Skyscraper-1st one in Chicago in 1885

  • Growth of steel and electricity made it possible to build skyscrapers

  • Rapid transit-system of trains to move people quickly

  • Problems: noisy, slums, unsafe, fires

Great chicago fire

Great Chicago Fire

  • Burning oil lamps used in barns and a cow knocked it over and most of town burned

  • No fire escapes on buildings so many people died

  • Laws were changed about building materials and fire escapes

Jane addams

Jane Addams

  • Opened Hull House in Chicago in 1889

  • 1st settlement house ever

  • A settlement house is a community center that helped people get an education, medical care, and find jobs

  • Provided day care for kids

Steel city

Steel City

  • Pittsburgh was right place due to location, resources and 3 rivers and the railroad

  • Steelers represents the history

  • Today steel mills are closed and the city is focusing on “going green”

Lesson 4

Lesson 4

  • Timeframe: 1900-1920

  • Vocabulary: progressive, muckraker

  • Main Ideas: Progressives tried to improve life in the US. Women and African Americans worked hard to gain equal rights.



  • Due to young children working in factories and lots of pollution, progressives worked hard to make factories cleaner and safer

  • Convinced lawmakers to protect workers and keep children from working



  • Muck is unpleasant dirt

  • Progressives who wrote about the need for change were called muckrakers

  • Upton Sinclair-a muckraker-wrote The Jungle about unsafe and dirty meatpacking plants

Theodore roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt

  • President Roosevelt worked with Congress to pass Pure Food Act and Meat Inspection Act

  • These laws protected the consumer by stating that medicine and foods had to be made without harmful chemicals

National parks

National Parks

  • Roosevelt wanted to preserve wilderness areas

  • Created Yosemite National Park

Equal rights women

Equal Rights: Women

  • Discriminated in jobs and education

  • Carrie Chapman Catt-gave speeches, wrote letters to law makers and marched in protest about inequality

  • 19th Amendment-guaranteed women the right to vote

Equal rights racial

Equal Rights: Racial

  • Many organizations fought for equal rights for African, Mexican and Asian Americans

  • NAACP-African American equality

  • Leaders: W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T Washington

Great migration

Great Migration

  • Hate organizations formed to spread fear and encourage prejudices

  • Life became very difficult for southern African Americans

  • Many moved to the North to get equality in the factories up North

  • Look at map on textbook page 283

Review for test

Review for Test

  • Know vocabulary and important names

  • Relate inventions and businesses to changing American culture

  • Advantages and disadvantages of city life

  • Describe women’s suffrage

  • Why is US known as a “melting pot”

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