Chapter 8
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Chapter 8. BIG Business and Cities. Lesson 1. Timeframe: 1856-1900 Vocabulary: corporation, competition, monopoly, labor union, strike

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8


Business and Cities

Lesson 1

  • Timeframe: 1856-1900

  • Vocabulary: corporation, competition, monopoly, labor union, strike

  • Main Ideas: Inventions changed people’s lives. Businesses produced more goods, hired more people, and earned more money than ever. Workers united to improve working conditions.

Inventions of the 1800s

  • Saved time and money and improved life for many people

  • Elijah McCoy-oil cup-kept trains running

  • Remington-typewriter-saved time with letters and reports

  • Margaret Knight-paper bags-easier to carry items


  • Alexander Graham Bell-phone-made communication easier and faster

  • Thomas Edison-electric light +

    clean, safe, and brighter lights kept city factories and stores open after dark

    *Business grew and changed with these inventions.

Big Business Men

  • Henry Bessemer-Bessemer process-made steel in an inexpensive way

  • Andrew Carnegie-used Bessemer process to make steel railroads-also bought other businesses to help his business

  • John D Rockefeller-Standard Oil Company-a corporation


  • Other people give money to run business-called owning “shares” and corporation pays other people part of their profit

  • Raised money by selling shares but buying shares was risky

  • Competition between companies led to monopolies-when a company has no competition


  • Competition keeps prices low and quality of items good because people have a lot of choices

  • In 1879, 90% of the US oil belonged to Rockefeller-he had eliminated his competition and became one of the richest people in the world


  • Carnegie and Rockefeller gave lots of time and money to charity

  • Carnegie paid for libraries

  • Rockefeller paid for schools, churches and hospitals


  • Machines made goods at lower prices

  • People bought large amounts of goods

  • Factories grew larger and more productive

  • Many people were hired to work in the factories

Factory Life

  • Same thing for 10-12 hours a day for 6 days a week

  • Unsafe and dirty

  • Children (age 10-15) dropped out of school to work and make money

  • Poor paychecks

  • Fired if you complained

Labor Union

  • Workers united to demand better working conditions and better pay

  • Knights of Labor-1st labor union-worked to make it illegal for children to work in factories

  • Workers used strikes (refusing to work) to get business to make changes

  • AFL Samuel Gompers

Lesson 2

  • Timeframe: 1890-1924

  • Vocabulary: persecution, ethnic group, tenement

  • Main Ideas: Millions of immigrants moved to the US. Immigrants moved to large cities and worked in factories.


  • Immigrant is a person that leaves their homeland to live elsewhere-usually to make their life better

  • In 44 years, 25 MILLION immigrants came to the United States from all over the world. They were looking for work. Some escaped persecution. Most received greater political freedom.

Ellis Island

  • Immigrants from Europe arrived at Ellis Island in New York Harbor. They had to have plans for a home and work. They also had to pass a medical physical.

  • Almost all European immigrants were eventually allowed to enter the US

Angel Island

  • Immigrants from Asia arrived at Angel Island in the San Francisco Bay, CA

  • Faced prejudice

  • About 25% were forced to return home to their original countries

  • U.S. became known as the “melting pot” with many different cultures mixed in it

Welcome to the United States

  • Immigrants settled near family or friends and developed immigrant communities in big cities

  • Ethnic neighborhoods were made up of people that practiced the same culture and language

  • Living conditions were dangerous and dirty in tenement housing

Hard Times

  • Very little pay

  • Crowded, dirty and unsafe which brought sickness and disease

  • Prejudice about different culture

  • Prejudice about possibility of loosing jobs to immigrants that accept less pay

Immigration Laws

  • 1882 Congress limited immigration with Chinese Exclusion Act-kept out almost all new Asian immigrants

  • 1920s Congress limited the number of European immigrants

  • But immigrants brought great ideas and inventions to make our country unique

Statue of Liberty

  • Gift from France

  • Sculpted by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi

  • Symbol of friendship and freedom

  • 151 feet high and 225 tons in the center of NY Harbor

  • Poem by Emma Lazarus engraved on it

  • Torch uses 13,000 watts of light symbolizing freedom

Lady Liberty

  • Seven spikes stand for the seven seas and seven continents

  • Tablet in her hand is engraved July 4, 1776 in Roman numberals

    “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free”

Lesson 3

  • Timeframe: 1880-1924

  • Vocabulary: stockyard, skyscraper, rapid transit, slum, settlement house

  • Main Ideas: Cities grew quickly thanks to technology. Crowded cities increased problems.

Living in the City

  • Immigrants moved to cities and Americans left the rural farms for the city life also

  • Farms used machines instead of people

  • In 1880, 72% US population lived in rural America.

  • In 1920, 49% US population lived in rural America.

Great Locations

  • Chicago grew due to transportation routes, natural resources and Lake Michigan

  • Goods could be shipped or put on a train to deliver all over America

  • Cities with great resources and good transportation became very popular

City Changes

  • Skyscraper-1st one in Chicago in 1885

  • Growth of steel and electricity made it possible to build skyscrapers

  • Rapid transit-system of trains to move people quickly

  • Problems: noisy, slums, unsafe, fires

Great Chicago Fire

  • Burning oil lamps used in barns and a cow knocked it over and most of town burned

  • No fire escapes on buildings so many people died

  • Laws were changed about building materials and fire escapes

Jane Addams

  • Opened Hull House in Chicago in 1889

  • 1st settlement house ever

  • A settlement house is a community center that helped people get an education, medical care, and find jobs

  • Provided day care for kids

Steel City

  • Pittsburgh was right place due to location, resources and 3 rivers and the railroad

  • Steelers represents the history

  • Today steel mills are closed and the city is focusing on “going green”

Lesson 4

  • Timeframe: 1900-1920

  • Vocabulary: progressive, muckraker

  • Main Ideas: Progressives tried to improve life in the US. Women and African Americans worked hard to gain equal rights.


  • Due to young children working in factories and lots of pollution, progressives worked hard to make factories cleaner and safer

  • Convinced lawmakers to protect workers and keep children from working


  • Muck is unpleasant dirt

  • Progressives who wrote about the need for change were called muckrakers

  • Upton Sinclair-a muckraker-wrote The Jungle about unsafe and dirty meatpacking plants

Theodore Roosevelt

  • President Roosevelt worked with Congress to pass Pure Food Act and Meat Inspection Act

  • These laws protected the consumer by stating that medicine and foods had to be made without harmful chemicals

National Parks

  • Roosevelt wanted to preserve wilderness areas

  • Created Yosemite National Park

Equal Rights: Women

  • Discriminated in jobs and education

  • Carrie Chapman Catt-gave speeches, wrote letters to law makers and marched in protest about inequality

  • 19th Amendment-guaranteed women the right to vote

Equal Rights: Racial

  • Many organizations fought for equal rights for African, Mexican and Asian Americans

  • NAACP-African American equality

  • Leaders: W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T Washington

Great Migration

  • Hate organizations formed to spread fear and encourage prejudices

  • Life became very difficult for southern African Americans

  • Many moved to the North to get equality in the factories up North

  • Look at map on textbook page 283

Review for Test

  • Know vocabulary and important names

  • Relate inventions and businesses to changing American culture

  • Advantages and disadvantages of city life

  • Describe women’s suffrage

  • Why is US known as a “melting pot”

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