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The Earliest People. Chapter 2. Prehistory. Time before written records So how do we know what happened? Archaeologists and Anthropologists Artifacts, petroglyphs, fossils, carbon dating, DNA studies, fluorine dating, dendrochronology. Paleolithic Era = Old Stone Age

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The Earliest People

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The Earliest People

Chapter 2


Prehistory

  • Time before written records

  • So how do we know what happened?

    • Archaeologists and Anthropologists

    • Artifacts, petroglyphs, fossils, carbon dating, DNA studies, fluorine dating, dendrochronology


  • Paleolithic Era = Old Stone Age

    • Hunting and gathering/foraging

  • Neolithic Era = New Stone Age

    • Agricultural Revolution, farming


Paleo-Indians30,000-15,000 B.C.

  • The first humans came to North America from Asia.

  • During Ice Age, they walked across Beringia, a land bridge.

  • From Beringia, they moved southward.

  • After Ice Age, water flooded Beringia creating the Bering Strait.


Big-Game Hunters25,000-5,000 B.C.

  • Reached OK as early as 11,000 years ago.

  • The Clovis people, named after the New Mexico site where first artifacts were reported, were known for their spears

  • Domebo Site (Caddo County)=mammoth with Clovis Points (spearheads usually 3-4 inches long)


Big-Game Hunters

  • Folsom Point is almost as old, smaller with a finer point

  • The Folsom people sites include the Cooper Bonebed(Harper County) and the Waugh site as evidenced by various spear points and a painted bison skull.

  • Nomadic

  • Paleo-Indians also ate seeds, nuts, and roasted meat; had fire


Foragers5000 B.C.-A.D.1

  • Still hunted, but did not follow migrating animals

  • In fall and winter, lived in caves

  • Killed smaller animals=better hunters (atlatl)

  • Gathered food also

  • Petroglyphs


Woodland Culture

  • The first farms were in the Grand River area, the Ouachita Mountains, the Cimarron River area, and along the Canadian and Washita Rivers.

  • Bow and arrow were developed about this time and made hunting easier.

  • Because farming meant growing crops, people moved less and villages began to develop.


Early Farmers/Woodland CultureA.D. 1-1000

  • Grew maize (corn), beans, pumpkins, sunflower, and squash

  • Pottery

  • Had to be near rivers and creeks. The first farms were in the Grand River area, the Ouachita Mountains, the Cimarron River area, and along the Canadian and Washita Rivers.

  • Bow and arrow were developed about this time and made hunting easier.

  • Because farming meant growing crops, people moved less and villages began to develop.


Plains Village FarmersA.D. 800-1400

  • Traders

  • Skilled farmers

  • More effective hunters due to bow and arrow

  • Bison most important game

  • Lived in square or rectangular houses

  • Celebrated and thought about mysteries and meaning of life

  • Drier climate caused crop failure ending their way of life


Caddoan Mound BuildersA.D. 1000-1500

  • Made huge earthen mounds that were foundations of temples, public buildings, homes of chiefs, or burial sites for the wealthy

  • Spiro=11 mounds on Arkansas River (LeFlore County) Purpose??

  • Traders-from north to gulf

  • Artisans-copper, shell, turquoise—made cloth

  • Chiefdom

  • Religious, life after death—burial sites

  • Drought too ended their society


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