Governance for renewable energy in multi level systems lessons from southeast asia
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Public Policy in Asia PhD Conference | 26-27 May 2014 Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy | National University of Singapore. Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia. Jens Marquardt | May 26 th 2014.

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Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia

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Governance for renewable energy in multi level systems lessons from southeast asia

Public Policy in Asia PhD Conference | 26-27 May 2014

Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy | National University ofSingapore

Governance for Renewable Energyin Multi-level Systems?Lessons from Southeast Asia

Jens Marquardt | May 26th 2014


On the agenda

 RE support as a challenge of multi-level governance

On the Agenda

Background

Introduction & theoretical framework

Findings

Focus on theIndonesiancase

Conclusions

Discussion & recommen-dations

2

3

1

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


What is the topic all about

1

Background

Energy Policy Research in Southeast Asia

Whatisthetopic all about?

Southeast Asia as a fascinatingregionfor energy policyresearch

  • Boomingregion: tripple demandby 2030

Energy side

  • Developingregion:buildupfuture energy system

  • Previligedregion: renewableenergypotentials

  • Diverse region:Variouspoliticalsystems

Politicalside

  • Developingregion:social / politicalpressure

  • Changingregion: democratization, stabilization

Case StudiesPhilippines + Indonesia

Research QuestionHowcan a regimeshifttowardsrenewableenergybegovernedwithin a decentralized multi-level politicalsystem?

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


Theoretical framework

1

Background

Multi-level Governance

[Jan Rotmans, René Kemp, Frank Geels]

  • Coordination between different levels of decision-making

  • Regime shift also depends on distribution of power

    Transition

    Management

    [Derk Loorbach, Geert Verbong,

    Jeroen v. d. Bergh]

  • Multi-phase perspective

  • Multi-level perspective

     Niche + Regime + Landscape level

Theoreticalframework

landscape

landscape

politicalsystem

social

system

economicsystem

electricityregime

awareness

market

science

culture

policy

industry

technologies

niches

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


Methodology of the paper

1

Background

Expert interviews with stakeholders of the RE sector in Indonesia and the Philippines

Analyze RE support in the energy system from a multi-level perspective

Discuss RE support from a transition management perspective

Methodologyofthepaper

Philippines

Indonesia

Government

Development aid

Public energy sector

Civil society

RE business

Science

50

50

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


1 multi level governance does play a role

  • „localauthorities“

  • „bupatis and walikotas“

  • „decentralization“

  • „complexcorruption“

Background

Results from Expert Interviews

(focus on Indonesia)

  • Political issues related to multi-level governance are perceived as a major barrier for RE support

  • Actors on different levels of decision-making are perceived as barriers, but only the national level is considered to be a driving force for RE support.

  • There is a clear perception of a need for a top-down approach, rather than a bottom-up process to support RE

2

1) Multi-level governancedoesplaya role.

Findings

What are the key barriers for RE in IDN?

Which actor is the main driving force for RE?

Which actor is the main barrier for RE?

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


2 a multi level perspective reveals obstacles

Market Structure

Electricity Supply

Policy Making

ESDMPolicies

Central govern-ment

Min. of Finance Subsidies

Self-generation

IPPs

generation

Min. of State Owned

Companies PLN Shareholder

Background

Sell to PLN (IPP)

Provide

framework

policy

The Energy System from a Multi-level Perspective

(focus on Indonesia)

  • From a national perspective: very clear electricity system

  • From a multi-level perspective: Complexity and conflicts

  • Decentralization increased the number of veto players for RE support

BAPPENAS Develop. planning

2

2) A multi-level perspectiverevealsobstacles.

Findings

PLN

Provinsi

Transmission & system operation

coordination

Local

PLN

Approve /

reject

projects

Kabu-paten / Kota

Dinas for Energy

distribution

Public Works

BAPPEDA

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


3 transition management can be a useful tool

Background

RE Support in the Light of Transition Management

(focus on Indonesia)

  • Multi-phase perspective: IDN still in its „experimentation phase“

  • Niche level experimentation: theoretically positive conditions

  • Socio-technical regime: stable fossil-fuel based regime structure

  • Landscape framework: support for coal (energy security, costs…)

  • Coordination: Lack of scaling-up and diffusion

2

3) Transition management canbe ausefultool.

Findings

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


Discussion

Background

Discussion

  • Multi-level governance issues are “bottlenecks” for RE support.

    • Weak capacity and lack of awareness for national energy planning on the local level

    • Lack of understanding for local circumstances among national policy-makers

    • Lack of consultation during the process of policy formulation

  • Transition management can be a useful approach, but needs to be further developed based on insights from outside the OECD.

    • Include non-linear behavior

    • Emphasize the role of local capacity

    • Include negative effects arising from decentralized structures as well as challenges arising from rapidly growing energy systems

Discussion

Findings

3

Conclusions

?

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


Final remarks and policy recommen dations

Background

Research Question

  • How can a regime shift towards RE be governed within a decentralized multi-level political system?

    Public policy recommendations

  • Involve stakeholders on all levels during policy formulation

  • Focus more on the process of policy implementation

  • Improve consultation & awareness raising among potential veto players

  • Focus on mechanisms of scaling-up, rather than on further pilot projects

  • Highlight positive effects from decentralization and promote a bottom-up process for RE support

Final remarksand policyrecommen-dations

Findings

3

Conclusions

!

Governance for Renewable Energy in Multi-level Systems? Lessons from Southeast Asia


Thank you for your attention questions comments

Thankyouforyour AttentionQuestions &Comments?

Jens Marquardt | Freie Universität Berlin

[email protected] | www.fu-berlin.de/ffu


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