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Nickels Cover. Nickels McHugh McHugh And Chris. Chapter. Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams. 10. 10- 2. The Hawthorne Studies and the recognition of Human Motivation. Scientific Management. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

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Nickels

Cover

Nickels

McHugh

McHugh

And Chris


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Chapter

Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams

10

10-2


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  • The Hawthorne Studies and the

  • recognition of Human Motivation

  • Scientific Management

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygiene factors

  • Job Enrichment

  • Theories X,Y, Z

  • Management By Objectives (MBO)

  • Expectancy, reinforcement and

    equity theories

  • Open communication and teamwork


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1) Scientific Management

  • Scientific Management – studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques.

  • Time-motion studies – studies, begun by Frederick Taylor, of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task.


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Scientific

Taylor

Gantt

Gilbreths

Behavioral

Mayo

Maslow

Herzberg

McGregor

Ouchi

Vroom

Evolution of Human Relations Management Concepts


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2) The Hawthorne Studies and the Recognition of Human Motivation

  • Hawthorne Effect – the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.


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3)Maslow’s Hierrachy of Needs

  • Physiological needs – basic survival needs,

    such as the need for food, water and shelter.

  • Safety needs – the need to feel secure at work

  • and at home.

  • Social needs – the need to feel loved, accepted,

  • and part of the group.

  • Esteem needs – the need for recognition and

  • acknowledgement from others, as well as self

  • respect and a sense of status or importance.

  • Self-actualization needs – the need to develop to

  • one’s fullest potential.


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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Unsatisfied

Self-

Actualization

Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Satisfied

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs


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4) Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygiene Factors

  • Motivators – job factors that cause employees to be productive and give them satisfaction.

  • Hygiene factors – job factors that can

  • cause dissatisfaction if missing but do not

  • necessarily motivate employees if

  • increased.


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Herzberg’s Theory

Figure 10.5 Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg


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5) Job Enrichment

  • Job enrichment – a motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.

  • Job rotation – a job enrichment strategy that

  • involves moving employees from one job to

  • another.

  • Job enlargement – a job enrichment strategy

  • that involves combining a series of tasks

  • into one challenging and interesting

  • assignment.


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Job-Oriented Motivational Techniques

  • Job Enrichment/Redesign

    • Skill Variety

    • Task Identity/Significance

    • Autonomy

    • Feedback

  • Job Simplification

  • Job Enlargement

  • Job Rotation


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6) Theories X, Y, Z

  • X : workers are lazy and stupid

  • Y : workers are naturally motivated and gifted

  • Z : combine Japanese and American approaches during 1980’s


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Theory X- Autocratic

Dislike Work

Avoid Responsibility

Little Ambition

Force/Control/ Direct/Threaten

Motivated by Fear & Money

Theory Y- Democratic

Like Work

Naturally Works Toward Goals

Seeks Responsibility

Imaginative, Creative, Clever

Motivated by Empowerment

McGregor’s Theories


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Ouchi’s Theory Z

  • Long-Term Employment

  • Collective Decision-making

  • Individual Responsibility

  • Slow Evaluation/ Promotion

  • Specialized Career Path

  • Holistic Concern for Employees


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7) Management by Objectives (MBO)

  • MBO – a system of goal setting and implementation that involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors, and employees.


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Goal-Setting Theory (MBO)

  • Goal-Setting Theory

  • Management By Objectives (1960s)

    • Employees Motivate Themselves

    • Help

    • Coach


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8) Expectancy, Reinforcement and Equity Theories

  • Expectancy theory – the amount of effort employees exert on a task depends on their expectations of the outcome.

  • Reinforcement theory – positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways.

  • Equity theory – the idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions.


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Employee-Oriented Motivational Techniques

  • Expectancy Theory

  • Equity Theory


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Expectancy Theory: Employee Questions

  • What is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try?

  • What is the likelihood my performance will lead to the desired outcomes?

  • What value do I place on the outcome?


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How to UseExpectancy Theory

  • Determine rewards valued by employees.

  • Evaluate performance level you seek.

  • Make performance level attainable.

  • Make reward valuable to employee.


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9) Open Communication andTeamwork

  • Cross-functional teams – groups of employees from different departments who work together on a long-term basis.


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Self-Managed Teams = Open Communication

Identify Procedures

Apply Procedures

Change Not Easy

Employee Empowerment

Teamwork & Open Communication


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Keys to Building Employee Trust

  • Start from a position of trust

  • Be consistent

  • Listen with an open mind & respect others’ opinions

  • Admit your mistakes

  • Give credit where credit is due

Source: Communication Solutions


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