Grounded in the present aware of the past and looking to the future
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Grounded In The Present, Aware Of The Past, And Looking To The Future. Virabhadrasana II Warrior II.

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Grounded In The Present, Aware Of The Past, And Looking To The Future

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Grounded in the present aware of the past and looking to the future

Grounded In The Present, Aware Of The Past, And Looking To The Future

Virabhadrasana II

Warrior II

This pose helps develop a sense of determination and perseverance.  Being a true warrior rarely if ever means displaying aggression openly or proclaiming your strength by proving others weaker. 

This is the trust of a warrior, the ability to release the need to control in order to create openness and authenticity.


University of edinburgh college of medicine veterinary medicine

University of Edinburgh College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine

  • Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1726 on models established at the University of Padua in the 16th century

    • boost the economy of the city by attracting foreign students rather than send Scots to the continent

    • in 1720, Alexander Monro appointed Chair in Anatomy. 3 generations of Monro’s continued for 128 years

    • In 1726, 4 additional chairs added to new Faculty of Medicine

200 Bed Royal Infirmary in 1738

http://www.mvm.ed.ac.uk/history/note4.htm


Early medical education in us

Early Medical Education in US

1st medical school in the colonies was founded in 1765 at the University of Pennsylvania, then known as College of Philadelphia, by Dr. John Morgan, a graduate of Edinburgh.

Department of Medicine Surgeons' Hall 1765 - 1801

http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/1700s/people/morgan_john.html

http://hdl.library.upenn.edu/1017.6/20040114013


Roots in edinburgh and london

Roots in Edinburgh and London

  • With Edinburgh as their model, they built the school within institution of higher learning

  • With their experience in London, they emphasized the need to have bedside teaching at Pennsylvania Hospital founded by Ben Franklin and chartered in 1751

Request To Admit Bearer Signed By

Ben Franklin in 1753

Cast of Pregnant Woman During Autopsy

http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/paharc/collections/gallery/artifacts/Cast_2.html

http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/paharc/collections/gallery/artifacts/Admission.html


Early curriculum

Early Curriculum

  • Medical education included formal lectures for a semester or two and several years of apprenticeship.

  • The first lectures were in anatomy and the theory and practice of “physik”

  • There was no formal tuition, no prerequisite academic preparation, and written exams were not mandatory


Harvard started lectures in 1782

Harvard Started Lectures in 1782

  • The 1st professors included John Warren of anatomy and surgery, Benjamin Waterhouse of the theory and practice of physic, and Aaron Dexter of chemistry and materia medica

  • In 1809 John Warren's son, John Collins, Warren John Gorham and James Jackson joined the faculty

Annual Circular 1810

http://countway.med.harvard.edu/rarebooks/exhibits/broad_foundation/broad_foundation2.html


Education at harvard

Education at Harvard

Admission Ticket for Ichabod Tucker to the Lectures of Aaron Dexter onOctober 14, 1790

Engraving of Holden Chapel

Used for classes 1800 – 1810 after basement of Harvard Hall considered, "unhealthy, inconvenient, and disgraceful,"

http://countway.med.harvard.edu/rarebooks/exhibits/broad_foundation/index.html.htm


Medical jurisprudence 1821 medical skill applied in aid of judiciary

Medical Jurisprudence 1821 Medical Skill Applied In Aid of Judiciary

  • Deaths by violence, poisons, suicide

  • Rape

  • Infanticide

  • Legitimacy of children

  • Abortion

  • Venereal disease

  • Insanity

Notes by Thomas A. Brayton from lectures by Amos Eaton 

Berkshire Medical Institution, Pittsfield, MA, 1821-1822

Courtesy of Jill Newmark, National Library of Medicine


The cause of female medical education female medical college of pennsylvania

The Cause of Female Medical Education – Female Medical College of Pennsylvania

  • Established by Quaker businessmen, clergy and physicians in 1850

  • “Practice of midwifery by males is itself an innovation upon ancient and legitimate practice”

  • Females should have physicians of their own sex to attend to “their many peculiar maladies”

  • A woman is the best physician for all diseases of women and children

  • Means of gaining an honorable and independent subsistence


3 rd annual announcement of the female medical college of pennsylvania

3rd Annual Announcement of the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania

  • Completed ordinary education

  • 3 years of study including 2 under supervision of a physician

  • Attended 2 full courses of lectures

  • Write a thesis

  • 6 scholarship students

  • 52 students in 1852

http://archives.drexelmed.edu/womanmd/item.php?object_id=001143


Council on medical education

Council on Medical Education

  • In 1904, AMA created the Council on Medical Education (CME) to promote restructuring of US medical education.

  • CME outlined its 2 major reform initiatives:

    • standardization of preliminary education requirements

    • “ideal” medical curriculum consisting of 2 years of training in laboratory sciences followed by 2 years of clinical rotations

  • Abraham Flexner, a pioneer of active, learner-centered education, hired by Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

Beck AH, The Flexner Report and the Standardization of American Medical Education. JAMA, 291:2139-2140, 2004


Flexner s approach to evaluating medical education

Flexner’s Approach to Evaluating Medical Education

  • Reform had been promoted as means to  status

  • The business ethic that governed profit-seeking medical schools was incompatible with values necessary for a socially useful medical education.

  • Flexner’s unique contribution was to promote educational reform as a public health measure.

    “The overwhelming importance of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health indicates that in modern life the medical profession is an organ differentiated by society for its highest purposes, not a business to be exploited.”

Beck AH, The Flexner Report and the Standardization of American Medical Education. JAMA, 291:2139-2140, 2004


Flexner report

Flexner Report

  • Examined 5 principle areas: entrance requirements, size and training of faculty, endowment and tuition, quality of laboratories, and availability of a teaching hospital

  • Flexner’s unique contribution was to promote educational reform as a public health measure

  • State government is proper instrument for regulating medical education, because social welfare is inextricably linked to the quality of the nation’s physicians

  • State licensing boards began to force schools to implement heightened admission standards and stricter curriculum requirements according to CME guidelines

Beck AH, The Flexner Report and the Standardization of American Medical Education. JAMA, 291:2139-2140, 2004


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