World Regional Geography
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World Regional Geography April 21, 2010 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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World Regional Geography April 21, 2010. Reading : Marston Chapter 10 pages 472-503, 506-508 Goode’s World Atlas pages 189-199, 201-213 (East, Southeast, and South Asia). Takstang Monastery, Bhutan. South Asia. Political Boundaries Physiographic Regions History Empires

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World Regional Geography April 21, 2010

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World regional geography april 21 2010

World Regional Geography

April 21, 2010

Reading:

Marston Chapter 10 pages 472-503, 506-508

Goode’s World Atlas

pages 189-199, 201-213 (East, Southeast,

and South Asia)

Takstang Monastery, Bhutan


World regional geography april 21 2010

South Asia

  • Political Boundaries

    • Physiographic Regions

  • History

    • Empires

    • British Imperialism

    • Independence & Partition

    • Afghanistan, Nepal, & Bhutan

    • Geopolitical Hotspots

  • Population Characteristics

  • Environmental History

  • and Issues

  • Culture and Ethnicity

  • Economic Development

  • NASA Satellite Imagery


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Political Boundaries


    Physiographic regions

    Physiographic Regions

    • Peninsular Highlands

      • Deccan Plateau

    • The Mountain Rim

      • Fertile valleys & isolated villages

    • The Plains

      • Most densely populated

      • Major rivers systems

      • Agriculturally productive

    • The Coastal Fringe

      • Includes island nations

      • Number of large cities


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    History

    • Mauryan Empire (320 – 125 BC)

      • Emperor Asoka introduced Buddhist principles of vegetarianism and nonviolence.

    • Gupta Empire (320 – 480 AD)

      • Classical period of Hindu development

      • Advancements in science, art, and trade.


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Mughal India (1504-1707)

    • Turks moving east to evade Mongols

    • Islamic rule

    • Further advances in art, science, and architecture.

    • Collapse of Mughal Empire left South Asia open for European colonialism.


    British imperialism

    British Imperialism

    • 1690s – Europeans establish trading posts.

    • British East India Co.

      • Portuguese forced out

      • 1773 - administrative control of India

    • The Raj – British Rule

      • Emerged in reaction to revolts of 1857.

      • Social reform

      • Infrastructure

      • Universities

      • Plantations

    ** Nepal and Bhutan remained independent


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    History: Independence & Partition

    • British India divided along ethnic and religious lines.

      • India (Hindu)

      • East and West Pakistan (Islamic)

      • Islamic Kashmir joined India.

    • Largest refugee movement ever recorded.

    • Ceylon achieves independence in 1948.

    • The Maldives achieve independence in 1968.

    • East & West Pakistan split in 1971

      • Pakistan

      • Bangladesh


    Afghanistan nepal bhutan

    Afghanistan

    Founded in 1747 by Pashtun tribal leaders (Durrani Empire)

    19th Century: British influence

    1919: Full independence from Britain following 3rd Anglo-Afghan War

    Cold War Politics

    1978: Communist government reforms, Rural Islamic militants

    1979: Soviets invade to support communist government, US supports Afghan mujahideen.

    1989: Soviets withdraw

    1996: Taliban takes control

    Afghanistan, Nepal, & Bhutan


    Afghanistan nepal bhutan1

    Nepal

    United in 1768 (formerly 3 separate kingdoms)

    1768-1951 Monarchy

    1996-2006 Civil War (Maoists rebels)

    Bhutan

    United in 1907 under a single Monarch

    In previous centuries minor Bhutanese fiefdoms repelled Tibetan and Mongol invaders.

    Democracy emerged in the last 10 years

    Last nation on earth to introduce television (1999).

    Afghanistan, Nepal, & Bhutan


    Festival of tihar nepal

    Festival of Tihar (Nepal)

    The Festival of Tihar (The festival of Lights) honors the Goddess Laxmi, the goddess of wealth. The second day of the festival is called “Kukar Tihar” (dogs day), during which dogs are honored for the role they play in society.

    http://www.nepalhomepage.com/society/festivals/tihar.html


    Ethnicity nationalism

    Ethnicity & Nationalism

    • Areas of Political Tension

      • The Punjab

        • Sikh separatists

      • Kashmir

      • Pakistan

        • Mohajir Quami Movement

      • Bhutan

        • Nepali immigrants

      • Sri Lanka

        • Tamil tigers

      • India

        • Ethnic separatist movements


    Jammu and kashmir

    1947 Independence from Britain

    77% Muslim

    Maharaja attempted to achieve independence

    India helped repel Pakistani invasion

    Chinese claim

    Border agreements

    Afghanistan

    Great Britain

    Tibet

    USSR

    Mao did not agree

    Current concerns

    Nuclear capabilities

    Jammu and Kashmir


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Population Density

    • Plains regions

    • Coastal cities

    • Bangladesh

      • Ganges delta


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Population Characteristics

    • 2nd largest regional population – fastest growing

    • 50 cities of 1 million+ population (yet mostly rural)

    • Afghanistan is an outlier

      • Life Expectancy = 44, Infant Mortality = 155/10000


    Population policies

    Population Policies

    • Fear of food and water shortages, mass starvation, and food riots due to:

      • Rural poverty

      • Rapidly growing cities

      • High fertility rates

    • India implemented several unsuccessful population policies beginning in 1952.

      • Relied on punishments

      • People distrustful of family planning programs

    • Newer policies place emphasis on educating women

      • Improvement in status and wealth

      • Linked to lower birth rates


    South asian diaspora

    South Asian Diaspora

    • 5 to 6 million South Asians live in Europe, Africa, and North America

      • British abolition of slavery led to need for cheap labor.

      • Brain drain

        • Britain, North America

        • Students remaining in U.S. and Europe


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Environmental History & Issues

    • Monsoons

      • Torrential seasonal rainfall (79–158 inches)

      • Flooding, especially in Bangladesh

    • Population Pressure

      • Deforestation

        • Fuel

        • Room for agriculture

      • Overuse of water

    • Pollution

      • Water pollution

        • Poor sanitation

      • Air pollution

        • Major cities


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Culture & Ethnicity

    • Language

      • 1,600 different languages

    • Four Major Families

      • Indo-European

        • India: Hindi

        • Pakistan: Punjabi

        • Bangladesh: Bengali

      • Munda

        • Tribal tongue spoken in remote peninsular hill regions

      • Dravidian

        • Southern India, Sri Lanka

      • Tibeto-Burmese

        • Scattered across the Himalayan region


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Culture & Ethnicity

    • Religion

      • Hinduism

        • India

        • Nepal

      • Islam

        • Afghanistan

        • Pakistan

        • Bangladesh

        • Maldives

      • Buddhism

        • Bhutan

        • Sri Lanka

      • Jain

      • Sikh


    Culture

    Culture

    • The Caste System (India)

      • Kinship Grouping

        • Language, region, and occupation

        • Born into caste

        • Marriage within same caste

        • Norms of interaction between classes

        • Brahmins (religious leaders) at the top

        • Untouchables at the bottom

    • Contemporary Culture

      • Large middle class

      • Bollywood

    • Worldwide impact

      • Mysticism and yoga

      • Food - curry


    World regional geography april 21 2010

    Economic Development

    • India: World’s largest democracy

      • 10th largest industrial sector

      • 1992 instituted reforms to open up economy

      • Rapid middle class growth

        • 200 million: well-educated, sophisticated consumers

    • 1992: Structural Economic Reforms

      • Increase in manufacturing

      • Increase in foreign investment

      • Uneven economic development

        • Development in urban areas

        • Rural areas continue to decline

      • Shift in agriculture to lucrative export crops

        • Local foods more scarce and more expensive


    Poverty and inequality

    Poverty and Inequality

    • Over 400 million live in poverty

    • Women and children are more vulnerable

      • Large populations in shantytowns

      • Both rural and urban populations at risk

      • Emerging middle class stands in stark contrast


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