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High Availability in. Scott Schnoll Principal Technical Writer Microsoft Corporation Session Code: UNC3. Agenda. Exchange 2010 High Availability Vision/Goals Exchange 2010 High Availability Features Exchange 2010 High Availability Deep Dive

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high availability in

High Availability in

Scott Schnoll

Principal Technical Writer

Microsoft Corporation

Session Code: UNC3

agenda
Agenda
  • Exchange 2010 High Availability Vision/Goals
  • Exchange 2010 High Availability Features
  • Exchange 2010 High Availability Deep Dive
  • Deploying Exchange 2010 High Availability Features
  • Transitioning to Exchange 2010 High Availability
  • High Availability Design Examples
exchange 2010 high availability vision and goals
Exchange 2010 High Availability Vision and Goals
  • Vision: Deliver a fast, easy-to-deploy and operate, economical solution that can provide messaging service continuity for all customers
  • Goals
    • Deliver a native solution for high availability/site resilience
    • Enable less expensive and less complex storage
    • Simplify administration and reduce support costs
    • Increase end-to-end availability
    • Support Exchange Server 2010 Online
    • Support large mailboxes at low cost
exchange 2010 high availability solution
Exchange 2010 High Availability Solution
  • Unified technology for high availability and site resilience
  • New framework for creating highly available Mailboxes
  • Evolution of continuous replication technology
  • Can be deployed on a range of storage options
  • Native to Exchange; not bolted onto the side
exchange server 2003
Exchange Server 2003

Complex site resilience and recovery

Dallas

DB1

Outlook

OWA, ActiveSync, or Outlook Anywhere

DB2

Standby Cluster

DB3

Clustered Mailbox Server had to be created manually

San Jose

Front End Server

Third-party data replication needed for site resilience

NodeA(active)

NodeB(passive)

Clustering knowledge required

Failover at Mailbox server level

DB1

DB4

DB2

DB5

DB3

DB6

exchange server 2007
Exchange Server 2007

Complex activation for remote server / datacenter

Dallas

DB1

SCR

Outlook

OWA, ActiveSync, or Outlook Anywhere

DB2

Standby Cluster

DB3

Clustered Mailbox Server can’t co-exist with other roles

San Jose

Client Access Server

No GUI to manage SCR

NodeA(active)

NodeB(passive)

CCR

Clustering knowledge required

DB1

DB4

DB1

DB4

DB2

DB2

DB5

DB5

Failover at Mailbox server level

DB3

DB3

DB6

DB6

exchange server 2010
Exchange Server 2010

Dallas

All clients connect via CAS servers

DB1

DB3

Client

DB5

Mailbox Server 6

San Jose

Easy to extend across sites

Client Access Server

Failover managed by/with Exchange

Mailbox Server 1

Mailbox Server 2

Mailbox Server 3

Mailbox Server 4

Mailbox Server 5

DB1

DB4

DB1

DB5

DB3

DB2

Database level failover

DB5

DB2

DB1

DB4

DB3

DB3

DB1

DB2

DB4

DB5

exchange 2010 high availability terminology
Exchange 2010 High Availability Terminology
  • High Availability – Solution must provide data availability, service availability, and automatic recovery from failures
  • Disaster Recovery – Process used to manually recover from a failure
  • Site Resilience – Disaster recovery solution used for recovery from site failure
  • *over – Short for switchover/failover; a switchover is a manual activation of one or more databases; a failover is an automatic activation of one or more databases after a failure
exchange 2010 high availability feature names
Exchange 2010 High Availability Feature Names
  • Mailbox Resiliency – Name of Unified High Availability and Site Resilience Solution
  • Database Mobility – The ability of a single mailbox database to be replicated to and mounted on other mailbox servers
  • Incremental Deployment – The ability to deploy high availability /site resilience after Exchange is installed
  • Exchange Third Party Replication API – An Exchange-provided API that enables use of third-party replication for a DAG in lieu of continuous replication
exchange 2010 high availability feature names13
Exchange 2010 High Availability Feature Names
  • Database Availability Group – A group of up to 16 Mailbox servers that host a set of replicated databases
  • Mailbox Database Copy – A mailbox database (.edb file and logs) that is either active or passive
  • RPC Client Access service – A Client Access server feature that provides a MAPI endpoint for Outlook clients
  • Shadow Redundancy – A transport feature that provides redundancy for messages for the entire time they are in transit
exchange 2010 overs
Exchange 2010 *overs
  • Within a datacenter
    • Database or server *overs
  • Datacenter level: switchover
  • Between datacenters
    • Database or server *overs
    • Assumptions:
      • Each datacenter is a separate Active Directory site
      • Each datacenter has live, active messaging services
      • Standby datacenter must be active to support single database *over
exchange 2007 concepts brought forward
Exchange 2007 Concepts Brought Forward
  • Extensible Storage Engine (ESE)
    • Databases and log files
  • Continuous Replication
    • Log shipping and replay
    • Database seeding
    • Store service/Replication service
    • Database health and status monitoring
    • Divergence
    • Automatic database mount behavior
  • Concepts of quorum and witness
  • Concepts of *overs
exchange 2010 deprecated concepts
Exchange 2010 Deprecated Concepts
  • Storage Groups
  • Databases identified by the server on which they live
  • Server names as part of database names
  • Clustered Mailbox Servers
    • Pre-installing a Windows Failover Cluster
    • Running Setup in Clustered Mode
    • Moving a CMS network identity between servers
    • Shared Storage
  • Two HA Copy Limits
  • Private and Public Networks
exchange 2010 ha fundamentals
Exchange 2010 HA Fundamentals

RPC CAS

  • Database Availability Group
  • Server
  • Database
  • Database Copy
  • Active Manager
  • RPC Client Access

SVR

DB

DB

copy

copy

copy

copy

AM

AM

SVR

DAG

RPC CAS

database availability group dag
Database Availability Group (DAG)
  • Base component of high availability and site resilience
  • A group of up to 16 servers that host a set of replicated databases
  • “Wraps” a Windows Failover Cluster
    • Manages membership (DAG member = node)
    • Provides heartbeat of DAG member servers
    • Active Manager stores data in cluster database
  • Defines a boundary for:
    • Mailbox database replication
    • Database and server *overs
    • Active Manager
active manager
Active Manager
  • Exchange component that manages *overs
    • Runs on every server in the DAG
    • Selects best available copy on failovers
    • Is the definitive source of information on where a database is active
      • Stores this information in cluster database
      • Provides this information to other Exchange components (e.g., RPC Client Access and Hub Transport)
    • Two Active Manager roles: PAM and SAM
  • Active Manager client runs on CAS and Hub
active manager21
Active Manager
  • Primary Active Manager (PAM)
    • Runs on the node that owns the cluster group
    • Gets topology change notifications
    • Reacts to server failures
    • Selects the best database copy on *overs
  • Standby Active Manager (SAM)
    • Runs on every other node in the DAG
    • Responds to queries about which server hosts the active copy of the mailbox database
  • Both roles are necessary for automatic recovery
    • If Replication service is stopped, automatic recovery will not happen
active manager selection of active database copy
Active ManagerSelection of Active Database Copy
  • Active Manager selects the “best” copy to become active when existing active fails
    • Ignores servers that are unreachable or activation is temporarily or regularly blocked
    • Sorts copies by currency to minimize data loss
    • Breaks ties during sort based on Activation Preference
    • Selects from sorted listed based on copy status of each copy
active manager selection of active database copy23
Active ManagerSelection of Active Database Copy
  • Active Manager selects the “best” copy to become active when existing active fails

8

6

9

5

7

10

Catalog Healthy

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

Catalog Crawling

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

CopyQueueLength < 10

Catalog Crawling

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

Catalog Healthy

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

ReplayQueueLength < 50

Catalog Crawling

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

ReplayQueueLength < 50

Catalog Healthy

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

CopyQueueLength < 10

Catalog Healthy

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

CopyQueueLength < 10

ReplayQueueLength < 50

Catalog Crawling

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

CopyQueueLength < 10

ReplayQueueLength < 50

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

ReplayQueueLength < 50

Copy status Healthy, DisconnectedAndHealthy,DisconnectedAndResynchronizing, orSeedingSource

example database failover
Example: Database Failover
  • Database failure occurs
  • Failure item is raised
  • Active Manager moves active database
  • Database copy is restored
  • Similar flow within and across datacenters

DAG

Mailbox Server 1

Mailbox Server 2

Mailbox Server 3

Mailbox Server 4

Mailbox Server 5

DB3

DB2

DB4

DB3

DB4

DB1

DB5

DB5

DB4

DB5

DB2

DB1

DB3

DB1

DB2

example server failover
Example: Server Failover
  • Server failure occurs
  • Cluster notification of node down
  • Active Manager moves active databases
  • Server is restored
  • Cluster notification of node up
  • Database copies resynchronize with active databases
  • Similar flow within and across datacenters

DAG

Mailbox Server 1

Mailbox Server 2

Mailbox Server 3

Mailbox Server 4

Mailbox Server 5

DB3

DB2

DB4

DB3

DB4

DB1

DB5

DB5

DB4

DB5

DB2

DB1

DB3

DB1

DB2

dag lifecycle
DAG Lifecycle
  • DAG is created initially as empty object in Active Directory
    • Continuous replication or 3rd party replication using Third Party Replication mode
    • DAG is given a name and one or more IP addresses (or configured to use DHCP)
  • When first Mailbox server is added to a DAG
    • A Windows failover cluster is formed with a Node Majority quorum using the name of the DAG
    • The server is added to the DAG object in Active Directory
    • A cluster network object (CNO) for the DAG is created in the built-in Computers container
    • The Name and IP address of the DAG is registered in DNS
    • The cluster database for the DAG is updated with info on configured databases, including if they are locally active (which they should be)
dag lifecycle27
DAG Lifecycle
  • When second and subsequent Mailbox server is added to a DAG
    • The server is joined to cluster for the DAG
    • The quorum model is automatically adjusted
      • Node Majority - DAGs with odd number of members
      • Node and File Share Majority - DAGs with even number of members
      • File share witness cluster resource, directory, and share are automatically created by Exchange when needed
    • The server is added to the DAG object in Active Directory
    • The cluster database for the DAG is updated with info on configured databases, including if they are locally active (which they should be)
dag lifecycle28
DAG Lifecycle
  • After servers have been added to a DAG
    • Configure the DAG
      • Network Encryption
      • Network Compression
    • Configure DAG networks
      • Network subnets
      • Enable/disable MAPI traffic/replication
    • Create mailbox database copies
      • Seeding is performed automatically
    • Monitor health and status of database copies
    • Perform switchovers as needed
dag lifecycle29
DAG Lifecycle
  • Before you can remove a server from a DAG, you must first remove all replicated databases from the server
  • When a server is removed from a DAG:
    • The server is evicted from the cluster
    • The cluster quorum is adjusted as needed
    • The server is removed from the DAG object in Active Directory
  • Before you can remove a DAG, you must first remove all servers from the DAG
exchange 2010 incremental deployment beta
Exchange 2010 Incremental Deployment (Beta)
  • Create a DAGNew-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -Name DAG1 -FileShareWitnessShare \\EXHUB1\DAG1FSW -FileShareWitnessDirectory C:\DAG1FSW
  • Add first Mailbox Server to DAGAdd-DatabaseAvailbilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer EXMBX1 -DatabaseAvailablityGroupIpAddresses 10.0.0.8
  • Add second and subsequent Mailbox ServerAdd-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer EXMBX2Add-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer EXMBX2 -DatabaseAvailablityGroupIpAddresses 10.0.0.8,10.0.1.8
  • Add Mailbox Database CopyAdd-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity MBXDB1 -MailboxServer EXMBX3
  • Extend as needed
exchange 2010 incremental deployment post beta
Exchange 2010 Incremental Deployment (Post-Beta)
  • Create a DAGNew-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -Name DAG1 –WitnessServer EXHUB1 -WitnessDirectory C:\DAG1FSW -DatabaseAvailablityGroupIpAddresses 10.0.0.8
  • Add first Mailbox Server to DAGAdd-DatabaseAvailbilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer EXMBX1
  • Add second and subsequent Mailbox ServerAdd-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupServer -Identity DAG1 -MailboxServer EXMBX2
  • Add a Mailbox Database CopyAdd-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity MBXDB1 -MailboxServer EXMBX3
  • Extend as needed
transition steps
Transition Steps
  • Verify that you meet requirements for Exchange 2010
  • Deploy Exchange 2010
  • Use Exchange 2010 mailbox move features to migrate
  • Unsupported Transitions
    • In-place upgrade to Exchange 2010 from any previous version of Exchange
    • Using database portability between Exchange 2010 and non-Exchange 2010 databases
    • Backup and restore of earlier versions of Exchange databases on Exchange 2010
    • Using continuous replication between Exchange 2010 and Exchange 2007
slide37

High Availability Design ExampleBranch/Small Office Design

Hardware Load Balancer

8 processor cores recommended with a maximum of 64GB RAM

Member servers of DAG can host other server roles

Client Access

Hub Transport

Mailbox

Client AccessHub TransportMailbox

DB1

DB1

UM role not recommended for co-location

2-server DAGs should use RAID

DB2

DB2

DB2

DB3

DB3

slide38

High Availability Design ExampleDouble Resilience – Maintenance + DB Failure

  • 2 servers out -> manual activation of server 3
  • In 3 server DAG, quorum is lost
  • DAGs with more servers sustain more failures – greater resiliency

AD: Dublin

Single Site

3 Nodes

3 HA Copies

CAS NLB Farm

JBOD -> 3 physical Copies

X

Mailbox

Server 1

Mailbox

Server 2

Mailbox

Server 3

X

DB2

DB1

DB3

DB2

DB1

DB3

DB2

DB1

DB3

DB4

DB5

DB6

DB4

DB5

DB6

DB4

DB5

DB6

Database Availability Group

slide39

High Availability Design ExampleDouble Node/Disk Failure Resilience

AD: Dublin

  • Single Site
  • 4 Nodes
  • 3 HA Copies
  • JBOD -> 3 physical Copies
  • Upgrade server 1
  • Server 2 fails
  • Server 1 upgrade is done
  • 2 active copies die

CAS NLB Farm

X

Mailbox

Server 1

Mailbox

Server 2

Mailbox

Server 3

Mailbox

Server 4

X

DB6

DB4

DB5

DB3

DB7

DB5

DB2

DB1

DB3

DB8

DB7

DB1

DB8

DB1

DB2

DB6

DB7

DB8

DB4

DB5

DB6

DB2

DB3

DB4

Database Availability Group (DAG)

dag design considerations
DAG Design Considerations
  • 1 DAG with 4 or more servers provides better availability than multiple DAGs each with 3 or fewer servers
  • Reasons for multiple DAGs
    • Require separate DAG-level admin ownership
    • Need more than 16 mailbox servers
    • Separate domains – A DAG is bounded by the domain
dag design considerations41
DAG Design Considerations
  • Site Resilient Deployments
    • Stretched DAG’s primary site is the site containing majority
      • Witness server or majority of nodes
    • Separate DAGs needed when users are affiliated with a specific site
      • For example:
        • DAG1 for Redmond users and DAG1 stretches to Dublin site
        • DAG2 for Dublin users and DAG2 stretches to Redmond site
key takeaways
Key Takeaways
  • Greater end-to-end availability with Mailbox Resiliency
  • Unified framework for high availability and site resilience
  • Faster and easier to deploy with Incremental Deployment
  • Reduced TCO with core ESE architecture changes and more storage options
  • Supports large mailboxes for less money
slide44
Win!
  • LifeCam Show
    • Ultra-Thin Mobile Design
    • World-Class High Definition Optics
  • Question:
    • What protocol is used for log shipping in Exchange 2007? What protocol is used for log shipping in Exchange 2010?
  • Please attend other business productivity sessions
    • Office and SharePoint track (OFC)
    • Unified Communications (UNC)
resources

Required Slide

Speakers,

TechEd 2009 is not producing

a DVD. Please announce that

attendees can access session

recordings at TechEd Online.

Resources
  • www.microsoft.com/teched

Sessions On-Demand & Community

  • www.microsoft.com/learning
  • Microsoft Certification & Training Resources
  • http://microsoft.com/technet
    • Resources for IT Professionals
  • http://microsoft.com/msdn

Resources for Developers

www.microsoft.com/learning

Microsoft Certification and Training Resources

related content

Required Slide

Speakers,

please list the Breakout Sessions, TLC Interactive Theaters and Labs that are related to your session.

Related Content

Breakout Sessions (session codes and titles)

UNC308 - Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Architecture

UNC310 - Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Transition and Deployment

UNC312 - Storage in Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

UNC311 - Unified Messaging in Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

UNC309 - Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Management Tools

UNC307 - Archiving and Retention in Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

Interactive Theater Sessions (session codes and titles)

UNC12H - Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 High Availability and Storage Scenarios

UNC13H - Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Server Management Tools

UNC14H - Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Setup and Deployment

Whiteboard Sessions (session codes and titles)

WTB304 - Designing Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 High Availability Solutions

slide47
announcing

Exchange Deployment Planning Serviceshttp://www.microsoft.com/licensing/software-assurance/packaged-services.aspx

take advantage of edps to get your deployment going
Take Advantage of EDPS to get your Deployment Going
  • Microsoft Software Assurance Benefit
  • Structured engagement to help guide your organization through the deployment planning
  • Review new Microsoft Exchange product features
  • Best Practice Sharing
  • Help to create comprehensive deployment and implementation plans
  • 3, 5, 10, or 15—as determined by your Software Assurance coverage
track resources

Required Slide

Track PMs will supply the content for this slide, which will be inserted during the final scrub.

Track Resources

Exchange Server 2010 Documentationhttp://technet.microsoft.com/library/bb124558(EXCHG.140).aspx

Read Exchange Team Blog Postshttp://msexchangeteam.com/archive/category/11164.aspx

Participate in Exchange Server 2010 Forumshttp://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/exchange2010/threads

Communications Server 2007 R2 Documentationhttp://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd440724(office.13).aspx

Read Communications Server Team Blog Postshttp://communicationsserverteam.com/

slide50

Required Slide

© 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

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