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Literary Criticism. Class #10. “ The Social Construction of Race ”. by Ian F. Haney L ópez. Vocabulary: Jurisprudence 法律體系 appellee 被告 plaintiff 原告 , 起訴人 burden of proof 提供證據之責任 evidentiary burden presumably 據推測 presumptively 根據推定的 verdict 裁決.

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The social construction of race

The Social Construction of Race”

by Ian F. Haney López


  • Vocabulary:

    • Jurisprudence 法律體系

    • appellee 被告

    • plaintiff 原告, 起訴人

    • burden of proof 提供證據之責任

      evidentiary burden

    • presumably 據推測

    • presumptively 根據推定的

    • verdict 裁決


  • Thesis statement: “Race is neither an essence nor an illusion, but rather an ongoing, contradictory, self-reinforcing, plastic process subject to the macro forces of social and political struggle and the micro effects of daily decisions” (966).


  • Anti-essentialism: “Biological race is an illusion” (972).

  • Scientific evidence: “intra-group differences exceed inter-group differences” (967).



  • Four facets of “racial fabrication,” or the social construction of race:

    • Man-made categories (=human constructs)

    • Race is often intertwined with gender and class issues.

    • “Meaning-systems surrounding race change quickly rather than slowly.”

    • “Races are constructed relationally, against one another, rather than in isolation.”


Food for thought
Food for Thought construction of race

  • 1. How does López use the four facets to explain the racial identity of Mexicans?

  • 2. Do we have any racial issues in Taiwan? How mightLópez’s theory help us?

  • 3. Read the following poems to delineate the construction of race.





  • Fredrik Barth observes “ethnicity rests on the historically the product of the assertion that ‘boundary, not on the ‘cultural stuff that it encloses” (qtd. in Sollors 299).

    **Could you find any boundary-constructing images in the poems that follow?


  • 莫那能 historically the product of the assertion that ‘

    ~排灣族盲詩人


恢復我們的姓名 historically the product of the assertion that ‘

  • 從「生番」到「山地同胞」 我們的姓名 漸漸地被遺忘在台灣歷史的角落 從山地到平地 我們的命運,唉,我們的命運 只有在人類學的調查報告裡 受到鄭重的對待與關懷 強權的洪流啊 以沖淡了祖先的榮耀 自卑的陰影 在社會的邊緣侵占了族人的心靈


恢復我們的姓名 historically the product of the assertion that ‘

  • 我們的姓名 在身份證的表格裡沈沒了 無私的人生觀 在工地的鷹架上擺盪 在拆船廠、礦坑、漁船徘徊 莊嚴的神話成了電視劇庸俗的情節 傳統的道德 也在煙花巷內被蹂躪 英勇的氣概和純樸的柔情 隨著教堂的鐘聲沉靜了下來


恢復我們的姓名 historically the product of the assertion that ‘

  • 我們還剩下什麼? 在平地顛沛流離的足跡嗎? 我們還剩下什麼? 在懸崖猶豫不定的壯志嗎?

  • 如果有一天 我們拒絕在歷史裡流浪 請先記下我們的神話與傳統 如果有一天 我們要停止在自己的土地上流浪 請先恢復我們的姓名與尊嚴


百步蛇死了 historically the product of the assertion that ‘

  • 百步蛇死了裝在透明的大藥瓶裡瓶邊立著「壯陽補腎」的字牌逗引著在煙花巷口徘徊的男人

  • 神話中的百步蛇死了牠的蛋曾是排灣族人信奉的祖先如今裝在透明的大藥瓶裡成為鼓動城市慾望的工具

  • 當男人喝下藥酒挺著虛壯的雄威深入巷內站在綠燈戶門口迎接他的竟是百步蛇的後裔-----一個排灣族的少女


1994, historically the product of the assertion that ‘場所在西門町,一個繁華和罪惡共存的空間。在這裡百步蛇被浸泡成春藥,氣脈下移的都市男人,忙著收割原住民少女早早結束的童年。http://unitas.udngroup.com.tw/b/200010/storyb4-3.htm


流浪 historically the product of the assertion that ‘—致死去的好友撒即有

  • 1.流浪,它是什麼意義?你不懂只知道必須無奈地離開希望找到能夠長留的地方

  • 2.十三歲,多嫩弱的年紀還有多少不理解就開始一天十二小時的工作被「當」在焊槍工廠忍受惡臭,長期禁足不准外出,沒有報酬身分證押在老闆的保險櫃裡三年和約一滿你就走


  • 3. historically the product of the assertion that ‘走到一家磚窯運磚廠的錢賺得多你那山豬般的體力走入悶熱得的燒磚房得到了頭家滿心的嘉許但你還是走只因為你不甘願得到最少,付出最多

  • 4.到工地挑磚挑砂石你說,一分量一分錢反正有的是力氣,也自由誰知三個月後工頭捲走了工資只好把身分證「當」在貨運行


  • 5. historically the product of the assertion that ‘你還是不停地流浪當綑工,睡在卡車上鐵工廠,揮鐵鎚睡廠房漂流到茫茫大海跟漁船渡重洋到阿拉伯做工終於,你不能再流浪挖土機的手臂打斷了你的脊骨……最後一口氣你彷彿在說:我懂了,流浪是無奈的壓迫死亡才是真正的解脫去罷!流浪漢流浪到未知的世界或許那是一個和平的地方


莫那能 historically the product of the assertion that ‘

  • 《別忘了你叫莫那能》http://www.esouth.org/?q=node/450

  • http://blog.sina.com.tw/archive.php?blog_id=4548&md=entry&id=4230

  • http://www.lungteng.com.tw/teacher/v-school/chinese/literature_class/books4/13-2.htm

  • http://www.nhu.edu.tw/~literary/1-1sociology/14.doc

  • http://cls.admin.yzu.edu.tw:88/LAIHE/C1/c12_021cm.htm



小丑 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(1)

  • 在一般人的想像中世界充滿愉悅的歡唱而現實的生命往往是悲劇一場小丑竭盡心力取悅人群面具 是凝固的笑隱藏在下面的 是淚水狂瀉

  • 一位婦人走到眼前要求小丑哄騙她的小女孩小女孩哭鬧不歇婦人生氣得罵小丑不應該

  • 小丑配合節拍賣力舞蹈任憑痛苦在體內翻攪精采的動作博得掌聲與尖叫小女孩終於開懷一笑


小丑 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(2)

  • 布幕終於落下小丑飛奔回家親愛的妻子軀體已經冰冷靜靜的覆蓋在白布下小丑勾起唇角掛著傷悲彎下的眼尾墜落著無盡痛楚的淚水「我已經盡力了…卻仍不能挽回」

  • 這就是我所認識的世界即使內心痛哭失聲仍須用微笑掩飾的真假難分但是人的忍耐有限怎能永遠把笑容苦撐有誰能聽見我心底的聲音隱藏著悲傷無盡


小丑 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(3)

  • 小丑快速的轉換表情用面具將真實的自己隔離而我…若不能釐清自己的個性終日如丑角般模糊不清這將是何等悲情


馬戲團 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(1)

  • 漂泊的旅程堆積成不安定的生活穿梭於一個個陌生城市迎面來的是無數障礙疊著考驗

  • 從這個舞台到另一個舞台馬戲團宛如嚴酷學校機械的訓練亮麗的花招只為了贏得觀眾的掌聲與錢幣一套套的表演戲碼似枷鎖般牢牢繫住動物家族脫掉面具心酸和淚水浸濕了每一個孤單夜晚.


馬戲團 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(2)

  • 終於忍耐的洪水絕提了城市的新鮮空氣解放了久錮的心靈等待著細縫黎明前相約衝出這冷峻的牢籠

  • 主角逃離是錯愕的夢魘傾圮了馬戲團晶亮的招牌可憐堡裡的動物竟成了悲慘的祭品他們日夜合十禱告遠逃的精靈能倦鳥歸巢就贖一群悲傷囚禁的靈魂


馬戲團 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(3)

  • 聰明的動物啊無論你幫向何方請別忘記唯有賣力演出才是我們唯一存活的養料


流浪者日記 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(1)

  • 福爾摩沙的四季日子充滿了思念,似乎沒有邊界香煙裊裊的佛堂前我照顧著縫製最後歲月的阿媽二二八公園裡楓葉變成了橘紅色成為往日英雄的歷史見證這也在一個受到限制、窄小空間中形成一個永恆是鳥兒們在都會裡玩耍的角落


流浪者日記 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(2)

  • 我的愛被綁在福爾摩沙在為外勞奮鬥的勇士們的腳步下不斷挖出被埋藏的傷口揮砍違反基本人權的暴力永遠張開你充滿愛的翅膀雖然道路長滿荊棘,但要繼續表達出正義使暴力不再執政再也不會有被踩踏的小草因此再也沒有充滿哭泣和傷痛的詩句


流浪者日記 historically the product of the assertion that ‘(3)

  • 雖然受傷,但月亮即將握在手中我們還是要繼續划下去,抵達希望之地穿越了距離,媽媽抱著我在妳的禱告裡再過四季我將回去一起耕種我們的生活田地將珍珠深植在一片希望裡


Diaspora
Diaspora historically the product of the assertion that ‘

  • The term diaspora ("a scattering or sowing of seeds") is used to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands; being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaspora


The End historically the product of the assertion that ‘


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