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COMMUNITY POLICING. The Political Era The Reform Era The Community Era. The Evolution of Policing Strategy. The pattern of major objectives, purposes, or goals and essential policies and plans for achieving those goals. “What it is...what it’s going to be!”. Strategy.

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The pattern of major objectives, purposes, or goals and essential policies and plans for achieving those goals.

“What it is...what it’s going to be!”

akin to capital in the private sector, refers to the sources of authority that provide the mandate and resources for public agencies to operate.

Sources of authority include law, legislative intent, politics, and ongoing financial support, professional expertise and tradition.

Refers to the values, missions and goals of an organization.

Missions and goals could include crime reduction.

Organization refers to the structure, human resources, management processes and culture of agencies.

Agencies can be Structured in a variety of ways:

By Function or geography

Centralized or Decentralized

Professionally, Militarily or Quasi-militarily



Human Resources refers to the portfolio of skills, experiences that an organization must have if it is to accomplish its goals.

Management processes include programming, rewarding and disciplining, and accounting and

budgeting systems of the organization.


. continued.

Culture: refers to the myths and beliefs of an organization, its informal communications and expected roles, personal values, attitudes and


Refers to the pattern of external conditions that effect the organization.

Most often they are technological, economic, social and political in kind.

Tactics are the methodologies that organizations use to obtain their goals(outputs). These activities can be at the level of an individual worker, combinations of workers, or units in the organization.TACTICS
Outcomes are the results of an organizations activities, anticipated or unanticipated, desirable or undesirable.OUTCOMES
the political era 1840 1930s
Authorization-Politics and Law

Function-Broad Social Services



Tactic-Foot Patrol

Outcome-Citizen & Political Satisfaction

The Political Era (1840-1930s)
the reform era 1920 1970s
Authorization-Law & Professionalism

Function-Crime Control

Organization-Centralized and Classical

Environment-Professionally Remote


Tactics-Preventive Patrol and Rapid Response

Outcome-Crime Control

The Reform Era (1920-1970s)
the community era
Authorization-Community Support

Function-Provision of Broad Services

Organization Decentralized



Tactics-Problem Solving

Outcome-Improved Quality of Life

The Community Era


Community policing is both a philosophy and an organizationalstrategy that allows the police and community residents to work closely together in new ways to solve the problems of crime, fear of crime, physical and social disorder, and neighborhood decay. The philosophy rests on the belief that law abiding people in the community deserve input into the policing process, in exchange for their participation and support. It also rests on the belief that solutions to contemporary community problems demand freeing both people andthe police to explore creative, new ways to address neighbor-hood concerns beyond a narrow focus on individual crime incidents.



Community Policing’s organizational strategy first demands that everyone in the department, including both civilian and sworn personnel, must investigate ways to translate the philosophy into practice. This demands making the subtle but sophisticated shift so that everyone understands the need to focus on solving community problems in creative, new ways that can include challenging and enlisting people in the process of policing themselves. Community Policing also implies a shift within the department that grants greater autonomy to line officers, which implies enhanced respect for their judgment as police professionals.



To implement true Community Policing, police departments must also create and develop a new breed of line officer, the (CPO) Community Policing Officer, who acts as the direct link between the police and the people of the community. As the department’s community outreach specialist, CPOs must be freed from the isolation of the patrol car and the demands of the police radio, so that they can maintain daily, direct, face-to-face contact with the people they serve in a clearly defined beat area.



The CPO’s broad role demands continuous, sustained contact with law-abiding people in the community, so that together they can explore creative new solutions to local concerns involving crime, fear of crime, disorder, and decay, with private citizens serving as unpaid volunteers. As full fledged law enforcement officers, CPO’s respond to calls for service and make arrests, but they also go beyond this narrow focus to develop and monitorbroad-based, long-term initiatives that can involve community residents in efforts to improve the overall quality of life in the area over time. As the community’s ombudsman, CPO’s also link individuals and groups in the community to the public and private agencies that offer help.



Community Policing implies a new contract between the police and the citizens it serves, one that offers the hope of overcoming widespread apathy, at the same time it restrains any impulse to vigilantism. This new relationship, based on mutual trust, also suggests that the police serve as a catalyst, challenging people toaccept their share of the responsibility for solving their ownindividual problems, as well as their share of the responsibility for the overall quality of life in the community. The shift to Community Policing also means a slower response time for non-emergency calls and that citizens will be asked to handle more of their minor concerns, but in exchange this will free the department to work with people on developing long-term solutions for pressing community concerns.



Community Policing adds a vital proactive element to the traditional reactive role of the police, resulting in full-spectrum police service. As the only agency of social control open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, the police must maintain the ability to respond to immediate crisises and crime incidents, but Community Policing broadens the police role so that they can make a greater impact on making changes today that hold the promise of making communities safer and more attractive placesto live tomorrow.



Community Policing stresses exploring new ways to protect andenhance the lives of those who are most vulnerable - juveniles, the elderly, minorities, the poor, the disabled and the homeless. It both assimilates and broadens the scope of previous outreachefforts, such as Crime Prevention and Police-Community Relations units, by involving the entire department in ways that encourage the police and law-abiding people to work together with mutual respect and accountability.



Community Policing promotes the judicious use of technology, but it also rests on the belief that nothing surpasses what dedicated human beings, talking and working together, can achieve. It invests trust in those who are on the front lines together on the street, relying on their combined judgment, wisdom, and expertise to fashion creative new approaches to

contemporary community concerns.



Community Policing must be a fully integrated approach that involves everyone in the department, with CPO’s as specialist in bridging the gap between the police and the people they serve. The Community Policing approach plays a crucial role internally, within the police department, by providing information and assistance about the community and its problems, and by enlisting broad based community support for the department’s overall objectives.



Community Policing provides decentralized, personalized police service to the community. It recognizes that the police cannot impose order on the community from the outside. but that people must be encouraged to think of the police as a resource they can use in helping to solve contemporary community concerns. It is not a tactic to be applied, then abandoned, but an entirely new way of thinking about the police role in society, a philosophy that also offers a coherent and cohesive organizational plan that police departments can modify to suit their specific needs.

community policing1

Community policing is a philosophy, management style, and

organizational strategy that promotes pro-active problem solving and

police-community partnerships to address the causes of crime and fear as well as other community issues…….California Dept. of Justice

community policing2



Community Policing

A philosophy of police service delivery that rests on three

essential elements:

Police Officers must consult with citizens to determine the policing priorities.

Neighborhood meetings.



One on one!

Police agencies and personnel must be willing to change in order to address priorities identified in the Consultation process.

Challenge the traditional!

New Methods!

mission statement
The mission of the Denton Police Department is to positively impact the quality of life throughout the community. To achieve these ends, the Department is committed to forming practical partnerships with the citizenry, which includes a mutual goal setting process aimed at resolving problems, reducing fear, preserving the peace, and enforcing the law; thereby providing a safer environment for all citizensMISSION STATEMENT
mission statement1
Positively impact the quality of life.

Form practical partnerships with citizens.

A mutual goal setting process aimed at resolving problems.

Reduce fear.

Preserve the peace.

Enforce the law.

We must identify all the stakeholders and resources and bring them to the table.

Look both internally and externally!

The police serve as a catalyst to drive them to action!

beat officer s role
Develop meaningful information exchanges within the department and with neighborhood residents.

Develop the officers ability to acquire information which would help him formulate a set of reliable neighborhood needs and expectations.(action plans)

Incorporate accessing a variety of different types of internal and external data sources.(We must go beyond the officer’s own “experiences” and actually teach them the problem solving process)

Develop and implement both short range and long term intervention strategies.

Evaluate intervention strategies.

Beat Officer’s Role
sergeant s role
Discuss with officers identified service demands.

Assess, adjust, devise alternate, and implement plans as developed.

Coordinate plans in multiple neighborhoods.

Provide feedback to officers.

Convey feedback to neighborhood groups.

Ensure efficient utilization of resources.

Procure necessary resources.

Identify training needs to further enhance officer’s COP skills.

Be a facilitator, motivator and coach to personnel!

Keep Lt.s informed

Sergeant’s Role
lieutenant s role
Coordinate recommendations received from all Sgts.

Convey to Captain all activities within command area, districts, and neighborhoods.

Coordinate a multitude of potentially different and similar requests.(Different from Sgt in that Lt. must also coordinate across shifts).

Must verify information collected, accuracy of analysis, availability of resources and compatibility of the recommendations.(Practicality)

Must assume a delicate role in coordinating the needs of numerous independent entities, all of whom have legitimate concerns.

Organize demands, manage implementation and assess effectiveness by conducting field inspections.

Be a facilitator, motivator and coach to personnel.

Lieutenant’s Role
captain s role
Ultimate responsibility is to approve or disapprove all plans.

Compare the Officer’s, Sgt’s, and Lt’s performance .within the criteria developed for the activities, strategies or programs administered.

Reviews the progress of all plans so a determination of the results can be made.

Coordinate the distribution of resources across command areas.

Procures resources

Be a facilitator, motivator, and coach to personnel!

Reports progress and results to superior officers.

Captain’s Role
empowerment ask yourself
EMPOWERMENTask yourself...
  • Is it the right thing for the Community ?
  • Is it the right thing for DPD ?
  • Is it ethical and legal ?
  • Is it something you are willing to be held accountable for ?
  • Is it consistent with the Department’s values and policies ?
  • ….. If the answer is YES to all these questions don’t ask permission
seven step plan for problem solving
Seven Step Plan for Problem Solving

1..........................identify problem

2. Set goals and objectives


3. Evaluate and review data and information

Implement the plan..6

4. Develop and evaluate all possible alternatives

Select the best plan.....5

problem solving process
Scanning- Officers are expected to look for possible problems as part of their daily routine.

Analysis- Officers then collect information about the problem. Officers should examine offenders, victims, the social and physical environment, and previous responses to the problem. The goal is to understand the scope, nature, and causes of the problem.

Response- The knowledge gained in the analysis stage is then used to develop and implement solutions. Officers seek the assistance of other police units, other public and private organizations, and anyone else who can help.

Assessment- Finally, officers evaluate the effectiveness of their responses. They may use the results to revise a response, collect more data, or even redefine the problem.

Problem Solving Process