Understanding Our High-Tech Students and Developing the Best Learning Approaches
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Understanding Our High-Tech Students and Developing the Best Learning Approaches. Larry D. Rosen, Ph.D. California State University, Dominguez Hills September 17, 2013. TECHNOLOGY USED TO BE JUST FOR GEEKS AND NERDS. … NOW IT IS FOR EVERYONE. TODAY’S TALK PLAN. A Tale of 6 Generations

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Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

Understanding Our High-Tech Students and Developing the Best Learning Approaches

Larry D. Rosen, Ph.D.

California State University,

Dominguez Hills

September 17, 2013


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

TECHNOLOGY USED TO BE JUST FOR GEEKS AND NERDS. … NOW IT IS FOR EVERYONE


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

TODAY’S TALK PLAN

A Tale of 6 Generations

Gobbling a Daily Media Diet

A New Era of Communicating

Multitasking Madness

The Student Brain – A scary concept!

Three Simple Strategies for Educating Our Young Learners


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WE ARE IN THE MIDST OF SIX VASTLY DIFFERENT GENERATIONS


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THE PACE OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IS DIZZYING

Penetration Rate = Years to Reach 50 Million Users

Radio took 38 years

The Telephone took 20 years

Television took 13 years

Cell Phones took 12 years

Angry Birds Took Just 35 Days!

The WWW took 4 years

iPods took 3 years

Blogs took 3 years

MySpace took 2.5 years

Facebook took 2 years

YouTube took 1 year


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

IS IT ANY WONDER WHY?

THESE ARE ALL TECHNOLOGIES THAT DID NOT EXIST BEFORE THE YEAR 2000

iPod

iPhone

Wii

MySpace

Facebook

Google+

LinkedIn

Hybrid Cars

iTunes

YouTube

Pandora

Twitter

iPad

XBox

Satellite Radio

Flickr

Skype

Camera Phones

Kindle

Firefox

Blackberry

3D TV

Club Penguin

TiVo

Broadband

Farmville

Groupon


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

AND THEY USE THEM ALL …

AT THE SAME TIME


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

NEW TECHNOLOGY IS MAKING OUR LIVES MORE DIFFICULT BECAUSE WE ARE CONTINUALLY HAVING TO LEARN MORE AND MORE . . . AND FASTER AND FASTER

And Sometimes it Just Doesn’t Make Sense


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

CHILDREN, TEENAGERS AND YOUNG ADULTS SEEM LIKE THEY ARE ALIENS … PARTICULARLY WHEN THEY COMMUNICATE


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HOW MUCH TECHNOLOGY ARE THEY USING EACH DAY?

BABY BOOMERS 8 HOURS A DAY

GENERATION X 15 HOURS A DAY

NET GENERATION 21 HOURS A DAY

iGENERATION 21 HOURS A DAY

GENERATION “C” 10 HOURS A DAY


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT TECHNOLOGIES DO THEY USE 2 HOURS OR MORE A DAY?

BABY BOOMERS TV

GENERATION X MUSIC

COMPUTERS

TV

GOING ONLINE

NET GENERATION MUSIC

TV

GOING ONLINE

TEXTING


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HOW ABOUT OUR YOUNG LEARNERS?

iGENERATION MUSIC

TEXTING

GOING ONLINE

FACEBOOK

IM/CHAT

GENERATION “C” TV

VIDEO GAMES


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THEY ALSO COMMUNICATE “DIFFERENTLY”


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HERE ARE THEIR PREFERRED WAYS TO COMMUNICATE


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

Girls: 3,952

NATIONAL NIELSEN RESEARCH

3,417

September 2011

196

And 42% of teens say they can text blindfolded.


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HAS THIS LED TO

MULTITASKING MADNESS?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THE EPITOME OF MULTITAKSING WAS INTRODUCED AT THE 2013 CONSUMER ELECTRONICS SHOW


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

MEET THE BRAND NEW

iPotty


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

MULTITASKING ACROSS GENERATIONS

(“Continuous Partial Attention”)

GENERATION C iGENERATION NET GEN GEN X BABY

4-8 9-12 13-15 16-18 BOOMERS


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHICH TASKS ARE EASY OR DIFFICULT FOR YOU TO MULTITASK?

Eating and playing a board game?

Reading a book and listening to music?

Surfing the Internet and listening to music?

Reading a book and watching TV?

Reading a book and talking on the phone?

Reading a book, texting, Facebooking, and listening to music (with the TV on)?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

ARE THEY REALLY MULTITASKING?

  • Their brains are really “task switching”

    • They make use of “Slack Time”

    • Technology makes them task switch:

      • Sounds

      • Vibrations

      • Visual displays


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT ARE THE COSTS OF MULTITASKING?

Attention Difficulties

Poor Decision Making

Breadth vs. Depth of Material

Information Overload

Internet Addiction

Poor Sleep Habits

Overuse of Caffeine


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THE PROBLEM IS BETWEEN THEIR EARS … OR RATHER BEHIND THEIR FOREHEAD

PREFRONTAL CORTEX


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DOES THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX DO?

  • Executive controller

  • Working memory

  • Attention & focus

  • Decision making

  • Multitasking control

  • Impulse control


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

NERVE CELLS IN THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX DO NOT FUNCTION WELL FROM BIRTH


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

INFANT NEURONS START WITHOUT A “COATING” CALLED MYELIN


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

AT BIRTH CHILDREN START TO MYELINATE NEURONS BUT SOME SIGNALS STILL ESCAPE


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

BY ADULTHOOD ALL NEURONS ARE MYELINATED


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS OF MYELINATION


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DOES IT MEAN?

  • Without myelin, neurons don’t conduct signals properly

  • The last brain area to be myelinated is the prefrontal cortex

  • The prefrontal cortex is your executive controller

  • This happens in late 20s/early 30s


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

AND TECHNOLOGY OVERLOADS OUR BRAINS

YOUR BRAIN SEARCHING GOOGLE

YOUR BRAIN READING A BOOK


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

IT IS ALSO ABOUT ANXIETY

  • 67% of teens and young adults check their phones every 15 minutes or less

  • If they can’t check in that often, 50% get moderately-to-highly anxious

  • What are they checking?

    • Text messages

    • Social Media – Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

OUR RECENT STUDY OF ANXIETY AND OBSESSION

(Cheever, Pasquerella, Rosen, & Carrier, 2013)

  • 163 college students

  • 75 minute session

  • Half allowed to keep/use smartphones

  • Half had smartphones removed

  • THE TASK? JUST SIT THERE AND DO NOTHING – NO TALKING, NO SCHOOL WORK … NOTHING

  • Measured anxiety three times: 20, 40, 60 minutes


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT HAPPENED TO ANXIETY?

Smartphones taken away


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHO GOT THE MOST ANXIOUS?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

Smartphone Taken Away

Increased Anxiety

Heavy Smartphone Users

Light Smartphone Users


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DOES A BRAIN NEED TO STAY HEALTHY?

  • Time away from technology

    • Communication Skills

    • Creative Thinking

    • Calmness

  • Sleep for “synaptic rejuvenation”

  • Periodic “resetting”


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THE BRAIN NEEDS SLEEP

  • Doctors recommend 9 hours per night for preteens and teenagers!

  • Average teen sleeps 6.1 hours per school night; 10.3 on weekend

  • Sleep Debt = 12 hours per week

  • 80% of teenagers say they “rarely or never get a good night’s sleep


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DO TEENS DO IN THE HOUR BEFORE SLEEP?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

AND THEY SLEEP WITH THEIR PHONE ON!

WHAT DO YOU DO WITH YOUR CELL PHONE WHEN YOU GO TO SLEEP?

Leave the ringer on (44%)

Put ringer on vibrate (31%)


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SHOW ABOUT TEEN SLEEP DISRUPTION?

  • Is it the light? NO IT IS NOT!

  • Is it “couch potato” activities? NO

  • (in fact a little nighttime TV helps!)

  • Is it their computer use? NO

  • Is it their homework? NO

SO, WHAT IS IT?

  • Incessant multitasking in last hour

  • Smartphone use in last hour

  • Cell phone interrupted sleep


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

“NORMAL” SLEEP CYCLES

  • Synaptic Rejuvenation

  • Default Mode Network


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT HAPPENS IF SLEEP IS DISRUPTED?

  • Instant dreaming

  • Lack of consolidation/pruning

  • Less time for creative thinking


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR EDUCATING OUR CHILDREN, TEENS & YOUNG ADULTS?


Three concerns for our students and children

THREE CONCERNS FOR OUR STUDENTS AND CHILDREN

  • Underdeveloped Social Skills

  • Shallow Thinking Skills/Habits

  • Changes in Brain Functioning - Neuroplasticity


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

THIS LEADS TO THREE MAIN ISSUES FOR EDUCATORS

  • Understanding their values

  • Helping them understand why their brains get distracted

  • Helping them learn how to focus and attend


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

OUR YOUNG STUDENTS HAVE 10 UNIQUE VALUES

Social connections are everything

Speed/Immediacy is CRITICAL

Belief in SELF: Any dream can be reality

Enjoy being creative

Strong family connection (not f2f)


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

Strong work ethic, but temptedby distractions (both external & internal)

Prefer to work in teams (“social”)

Prefer project deadlinesbut no progress reports

Need positive reinforcement immediateand often

Motivated by time off to play with technology


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HELPING THEM LEARN “FOCUS AND ATTENTION” IS CRITICAL


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HOW DO STUDENTS FOCUS WHILE STUDYING?

ARE THEY DISTRACTED?

---------

AND WHAT ROLE DOES TECHNOLOGY PLAY IN THEIR FOCUS AND ATTENTION?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

OUR STUDY OF STUDYING:

A CASE OF DISTRACTED LEARNERS

  • 279 students observed studying [middle school, high school, college]

  • 15 minutes – observe every minute

    • On-task or off-task?

    • What is on computer screen?

    • Daily use of technologies and media

    • Studying strategies?

    • Preference for task switching

  • School performance/grade on test


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

FOCUSED

FOCUSED

FOCUSED

SAME FOR COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS AND MEDICAL STUDENTS

DISTRACTED

DISTRACTED


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

AND … THE MOST OFF-TASK STUDENTS HAD THE MOST OPEN WINDOWS!!!


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT PREDICTS SCHOOL PERFORMANCE (GRADES)?

How much they stay “on task” (GOOD!)

If they have strategies for studying (GOOD!)

Preference for task switching (BAD )

Daily media consumption (BAD )

Whether they checked Facebook ONCE during 15 minutes (AWFUL!)


Why can t they focus and pay attention

WHY CAN’T THEY FOCUS AND PAY ATTENTION?

  • OUTSIDE IN THE REAL WORLD

    • The “alerts” that come from smartphones

    • And television has changed, too, to grab our children’s attention

  • INSIDE THE BRAIN

    • Human Orienting Response

    • The mind is always thinking … about technology AND THIS MAKES THEM ANXIOUS


It is all about metacognition

Knowing how you best learn

Knowing how your brain works

Knowing what conditions help you best learn and study

IT IS ALL ABOUT “METACOGNITION”


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

OUR RECENT STUDY:

METACOGNITION IN ACTION

  • 4 university classes; n=175

  • 30 minutes video lecture

  • Interruptions: no texts, 4 text, 8 texts

What is your major and why did you choose it?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

IMPACT OF INTERRUPTIONS

72%

8 TEXT GROUP DID WORSE THAN 0 TEXT GROUP

=


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

DID ANYONE SHOW “METACOGNITION”?

  • Those who IMMEDIATELY read and respond to a text message got a “C”

  • Those who waited for a few minutes to read or respond got an “A”!


Possible metacognitive questions for students

POSSIBLE METACOGNITIVE QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS

  • The best room for me to study in at home is ___________ because ___________.

  • Some ways that I can avoid distractions while studying at home are ___________.

  • A good place for me to put my phone before a class or before studying is ___________.

  • If I use technology in class, some ways that I can make sure I don’t get distracted are ___________.


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

WHAT DISRUPTS STUDENTS THE MOST?

  • Electronic Communication:

    • Texting, e-mail, IM

  • Social media


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

RESETTING THE BRAIN

  • THINK coffee break or cigarette break

    • Improves performance

  • Pre-teen, teen & young adult behaviors

    • Bored – used to task switching

    • Texting is modern day “passing notes”

    • Attention span (remember 3-5 minutes!)

  • The teenage brain – where does the oxygen flow?


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

HOW TO RESET THEIR BRAINS

(and maybe yours, too!)

  • Nature Breaks (live or virtual)

  • Tech Breaks

  • Music/Art

  • Exercise

  • Meditation/Biofeedback

  • Laughter

  • Hot Bath

  • Talking (live) to a friend (3:1 ratio of positives)

  • Practicing a foreign language

  • Playing a musical instrument


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

TEACHING OUR STUDENTS DIGITAL TIME MANAGEMENT USING THE A-B-C METHOD

  • Aware of options (distractors)

  • Breathe – calm/reset brain

  • Choose good options (metacognition)


Understanding our high tech students and developing the best learning approaches

Tk u 4 urtme. r thr n e qs 4 me?


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