The joints of the bones of limbs shandong university liu zhiyu
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The joints of the bones of limbs SHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu. 一、 The joint of upper limb. Sternal end of clavicle Clavicular notch of sternum. (一) The joints of shoulder girdle. 1 、 Sternoclavicular Joint :. Composition :. Characteristic :. , articular disc. Articular disc.

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The joints of the bones of limbs shandong university liu zhiyu
The joints of the bones of limbsSHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu


一、The joint of upper limb


Sternal end of clavicleClavicular notch of sternum

(一)The joints of shoulder girdle

1、Sternoclavicular Joint:

Composition:

Characteristic:

articular disc

Articular disc


(一)The joints of shoulder girdle

Movements:

forwards and backwards (20-30°)

elevation and depression (60°)

circumduction


coracoacromial lig.

coracoid process

Acromion

Coracoacromial Ligament

acromion

coracoid process

2、Acromioclavicular Joint

Composition:

3、Coracoacromial Ligament

Coracoacromial arch:


(二)The joints of free upper limb

Glenoid cavity

Head of humorus

肱骨头

1、 Shoulder Joint

head of humerus

glenoid cavity of scapula

Composition:

Characteristic:



Movements:

flexion and extention,

adduction , abduction,

medial and lateral rotation,

circumduction


2、 Elbow Joint

Composition:

① Humeroulnar joint : formed by trochlear of humerus and troclear noch

② Humeroradial joint : formed by capitulum of humerus and head of radius

③ Proximal radioulnar joint:formed by articular circumference of radius and radial notch of ulna


Radial collacteral

ligament

Ulnar collacteral ligament

Annular ligament

of radius

Character:

①capsule:

②ligament:

Radial collacteral ligament 、

Ulnar collacteral ligament 、

Annular ligament of radius


Movements flexion and extension pronation supination
Movements: flexion and extension,pronation supination


3、Joints between radius and ulna

  • (1)Interosseous membrane of forearm

  • (2)Proximal radioulnar joint

  • (3)Distal radioulnar joint

  • movement

    Pronation supination


    4、Joints of Hand

    (1)Radiocarpal Joint

    Articular fossa——Carpal articular surface of radius and articular disc below the ulna

    Composion

    Articular head——Proximal row of carpal: scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones, but not pisiform

    Characteristic:

    Capsule is lax and strengthened by surrounding ligament

    Movements:

    flexion, extension,

    adduction ,abduction

    circumduction


    4、Joints of Hand

    (2)Intercarpal joints

    (3)Carpometacarpal joints:

    Carpometacarpal joint of thum

    • Carpometacarpal joint of thumb

      • Composition: trapezium and base of first metacarpal

      • Movement: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and opposition


    4)Metacarpophalangeal joints

    (5)Interphalangeal joints


    Joints of lower limb
    二、Joints of Lower limb


    Composition auricular surface of ilium

    auricular surface of sacrum

    (一) The joints of pelvic girdle

    1、 Sacroiliac Joint:


    greater sciatic foramen

    Sacrospinous Ligament

    Sacrotuberous Ligament

    lesser sciatic foramen

    (1)Sacrotuberous Ligament

    (2)Sacrospinous Ligament

    greatersciatic foramen

    lesser sciatic foramen


    interpubic disc

    3、Pubic Symphysis

    4、 Obturator Membrane

    Composition:


    5、 Pelvis

    • Composition:

    • paired hip bones

    • sacrum

    • coccyx

    terminal line


    Terminal line:formed by

    promontory of sacrum, arcuate line,

    pecten of pubis, pubic tubercle,

    upper border of pubic symphysis

    lesser pelvis

    Pelvic inlet

    Pelvic outlet

    tip of coccyx,

    sacrotuberous ligament,

    ischial tuberosity,

    ramus of ischium,

    inferior ramus of pubissymphysis


    Male

    female

    Overall

    Narrow and long

    Wide and short

    Inlet

    Oval or heart shaped

    Round

    Subpubic angle

    Acute angle

    (70~750)

    Right angle

    (90~1000 )

    Pelvic cavity

    Deep ,narrow

    Shallower, wide

    Outlet

    Small

    Larger

    6. Main difference between male and femal pelvis


    (二)joints of free lower limb

    1、 Hip Joint

    (1) Composition:

    Acetabulum

    femoral head

    (2) Characteristic:

    ① acetabulum labrum

    • Articular capsule attachments:


    • ligaments:

    • iliofemoral ligament

    • Ligament of head of femur

    • transverse acetebular ligament

    • Pubofemoral lig.

    • Ischiofemoral ligament


    Flexion

    Extention

    Addution

    Abdution

    (3) movement:

    Medial and lateral rotation

    Circumdution


    2、Knee Joint

    (1)Composition:

    (2)Characteristic:

    ① ligaments:

    • patellar lig.

    • Fibular collateral lig.

    • TibiaL collateral lig

    • Cruciate lig. Of knee

  • anterior cruciate lig.

  • posterior cruciate lig.


  • 2、Knee Joint

    (2) Characteristic:

    ② meniscus

    medial meniscus:C

    Lateral meniscus:O

    ③synovial membrane:

    Suprapatellar bursa

    Alar folds


    (3) movements:

    flexion、extention,


    3、joints between tibia and fibula

    Tibiofibular joint

    Crural interosseous membrane

    Anterior and posterior tibiofibular lig.


    4、Joints of Foot

    fibula

    tibia

    Talus

    (1)talocrural jiont( Ankle Joint )

    Composition

    Distal end of tibia and fibula

    Trochlea of talus

    Characteristic:

    Medial lig.

    Lateral lig.

    Movement:

    dorsiflexion

    Plantaflexion


    2) Intertarsal joint

    Transverse tarsal joint

    Calcaneocuboid joint talocalcaneonavicular joint

    Movements:

    inversion

    eversion


    3)Tarsometatarsal joint

    (4)Intermetatarsal joint

    (5)Metatarsophalangeal joint

    (6) Interphalangeal joint


    5、Arch of foot:

    Medial longitudinal arch

    Lateral longitudinal arch

    transverse arch


    supination

    pronation


    Interphalangeal joint

    Metatarsophalangeal joint

    Tarsometatarsal joint


    Fibular

    Collateral

    ligament

    Tibial collateral

    ligament

    Patellar ligament


    Posterior cruciate ligament

    Anterior cruciate ligment


    Medial meniscus

    lateral meniscus


    smooth muscle

    cardiac muscle

    skeletal muscle 

    Myology

    Introduction


    Muscles of head

    Muscles of neck

    Muscles of trunk

    Muscles of upper limb

    Muscles of lower loimb


    Shape and structure of skeletal muscles

    aponeurosis

    Long muscle

    Short muscle

    Flate muscle

    Orbicular muscle

    Structure:

    Muscle Belly

    Tendon

    Tendinous intersections


    二 、The origin , insertion and function

    origin

    insertion


    (一)Fascia

    Superficial fascia

    Deep fascia

    (二)Synovial Bursa


    (三) Tendinous Sheath

    Fibrous layer

    Synovial layer mesotendon



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