Nutrition during adolescence
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Nutrition during Adolescence. Physiological changes Nutrient needs Focus on calcium Eating behaviors Feeding responsibility Vegetarian choices Eating disorders Lifestyle behaviors Substance use/abuse Fitness and nutrition Teen pregnancy. Physiological Changes during Puberty.

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Nutrition during Adolescence

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Nutrition during adolescence

Nutrition during Adolescence

  • Physiological changes

  • Nutrient needs

    • Focus on calcium

  • Eating behaviors

    • Feeding responsibility

    • Vegetarian choices

    • Eating disorders

  • Lifestyle behaviors

    • Substance use/abuse

    • Fitness and nutrition

    • Teen pregnancy


Physiological changes during puberty

Physiological Changes during Puberty

  • Puberty = period of ________ from childhood to adulthood

    • Hormonal changes/body composition triggers?

  • Physical:

    • sexual maturation

    • increased height/weight

    • body composition nutrition

      • men: _____ protein, Fe, Zn, Ca

      • women: _______ menses Fe

    • acne


Psychological characteristics

Psychological Characteristics

  • Establish

  • Egocentrism

  • Imaginary Audience

    • high self-consciousness

    • belief in their special, unique existence

    • “It won’t happen to me”

      **Health implication =


Calcium

Calcium…

  • 45-50% of total bone growth occurs during adolescence

  • can absorb ____________ as adults

  • Adequate Intake (AI) is set at ______ mg calcium/day to take advantage of opportunity to build

    (9-18 years old)

  • High ___________ intake is a concern


And other nutrients

…and Other Nutrients

  • Adolescents are generally low in

  • Protein: they get ~2 times more than needed

  • Zinc: needed for

    bioavailability increases

  • Fiber: 0.5 g/kg body weight; keep < 35 g total

  • V.C:


Eating behaviors

Eating Behaviors

  • Teens will take increasing responsibility for their food choices

  • They still probably need _______ (25-33% of intake)

  • Skipping breakfast/meals is common but unhealthy

  • Influences on eating behaviors:


Eating behaviors1

Eating Behaviors

  • Teens will take increasing responsibility for their food choices…

    • may choose “alternative” eating patterns

    • greater risk for eating disorders

  • Vegetarians: start puberty shorter, leaner, and later but no differences eventually

    • Concern for

    • higher prevalence of

      (using vegetarianism as a cover, notas a result of vegetarianism)


Types of vegetarian diets

Macrobiotic

Fruitarians

Vegan

Lacto-ovo

Lacto-ovo-pollo

Pesco

Only a few plant foods

Dried fruit, nuts, honey

No animal foods

Plants + milk, eggs

ditto + poultry

Plants + fish

(+ milk, eggs…)

Types of Vegetarian Diets

Type

Foods eaten


Protein complementation

legumes

vegetables

corn

grains

nuts and seeds

met

met

trp, lys

lys, thr

lys

Protein Complementation

Limiting amino acid

Food source

met = methioninethr = threonine

lys = lysinetrp = tryptophan


Nutritional concerns of vegetarian diets

Macrobiotic

Fruitarians

Vegan

Others

*vit. C, calcium, protein…*

*energy, protein, minerals…*

vitamin B12!, calcium, zinc, iron, vit. D

probably okay

Nutritional Concerns of Vegetarian Diets

Type

Nutrients at risk


Eating disorders

Eating Disorders

  • Food itself is not the primary problem; food is a symptom of serious distress.

  • Early detection is crucial for recovery.

  • Help is available. Multidisciplinary treatment works best.


Prevention

Prevention

  • Discourage

  • Downplay _________; promote healthful behavior

  • Promote eating when

  • Do not use food as

  • Teach proper nutrition and healthy weight approaches


Adolescents and athletics

Adolescents and Athletics

  • ________is the nutrient of primary concern for athletes in general

  • ________ is a performance and a health risk

    • replace

      for every pound lost in sweat

  • Protein: +6-7 g/day (____% of kcal)

    • More = high fat intake; delayed digestion, absorption; greater dehydration risk


Adolescents and athletics1

Adolescents and Athletics

  • Energy is primary for still-growing adolescent athletes

    • Boys: maintain

    • Girls: maintain

  • Concern = athletes who manipulate weight

  • Anabolic steroids increase bulk, but also stunt growth and pose health risk

  • Long-term effects of ___________ are unknown


Female athlete triad

Female Athlete Triad


Prevention1

Prevention

  • Support adolescents through puberty: recognize

  • Teach that ______ = better athletic performance

  • Encourage healthy attitudes from


Adolescent pregnancy

Adolescent Pregnancy

  • High risk pregnancies due to immaturity:

  • Gynecological age = time from onset of __________

    • < ______ indicates greater risk

    • less time from completion of puberty means less

    • e.g. ________

    • involve _______ if possible


Risks to the mother

Risks to the Mother

  • bleeding(1st, 3rd trimesters)

  • __

  • difficult

    • cephalopelvic __________

  • pregnancy-induced hypertension

  • infections

  • psychological/social development

  • mortality: 2.5x greater!


Risks to the baby

Risks to the Baby

  • perinatal and neonatal

  • *

    • babies weigh less than those of adult mothers with same weight gain

    • will covering normal gain help?

  • risk of

  • risk of

  • life with parent(s) who have ____________ skills

  • life with one parent only;

    living below the


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