Nutrition during adolescence
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Nutrition during Adolescence. Physiological changes Nutrient needs Focus on calcium Eating behaviors Feeding responsibility Vegetarian choices Eating disorders Lifestyle behaviors Substance use/abuse Fitness and nutrition Teen pregnancy. Physiological Changes during Puberty.

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Nutrition during Adolescence

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Nutrition during Adolescence

  • Physiological changes

  • Nutrient needs

    • Focus on calcium

  • Eating behaviors

    • Feeding responsibility

    • Vegetarian choices

    • Eating disorders

  • Lifestyle behaviors

    • Substance use/abuse

    • Fitness and nutrition

    • Teen pregnancy


Physiological Changes during Puberty

  • Puberty = period of ________ from childhood to adulthood

    • Hormonal changes/body composition triggers?

  • Physical:

    • sexual maturation

    • increased height/weight

    • body composition nutrition

      • men: _____ protein, Fe, Zn, Ca

      • women: _______ menses Fe

    • acne


Psychological Characteristics

  • Establish

  • Egocentrism

  • Imaginary Audience

    • high self-consciousness

    • belief in their special, unique existence

    • “It won’t happen to me”

      **Health implication =


Calcium…

  • 45-50% of total bone growth occurs during adolescence

  • can absorb ____________ as adults

  • Adequate Intake (AI) is set at ______ mg calcium/day to take advantage of opportunity to build

    (9-18 years old)

  • High ___________ intake is a concern


…and Other Nutrients

  • Adolescents are generally low in

  • Protein: they get ~2 times more than needed

  • Zinc: needed for

    bioavailability increases

  • Fiber: 0.5 g/kg body weight; keep < 35 g total

  • V.C:


Eating Behaviors

  • Teens will take increasing responsibility for their food choices

  • They still probably need _______ (25-33% of intake)

  • Skipping breakfast/meals is common but unhealthy

  • Influences on eating behaviors:


Eating Behaviors

  • Teens will take increasing responsibility for their food choices…

    • may choose “alternative” eating patterns

    • greater risk for eating disorders

  • Vegetarians: start puberty shorter, leaner, and later but no differences eventually

    • Concern for

    • higher prevalence of

      (using vegetarianism as a cover, notas a result of vegetarianism)


Macrobiotic

Fruitarians

Vegan

Lacto-ovo

Lacto-ovo-pollo

Pesco

Only a few plant foods

Dried fruit, nuts, honey

No animal foods

Plants + milk, eggs

ditto + poultry

Plants + fish

(+ milk, eggs…)

Types of Vegetarian Diets

Type

Foods eaten


legumes

vegetables

corn

grains

nuts and seeds

met

met

trp, lys

lys, thr

lys

Protein Complementation

Limiting amino acid

Food source

met = methioninethr = threonine

lys = lysinetrp = tryptophan


Macrobiotic

Fruitarians

Vegan

Others

*vit. C, calcium, protein…*

*energy, protein, minerals…*

vitamin B12!, calcium, zinc, iron, vit. D

probably okay

Nutritional Concerns of Vegetarian Diets

Type

Nutrients at risk


Eating Disorders

  • Food itself is not the primary problem; food is a symptom of serious distress.

  • Early detection is crucial for recovery.

  • Help is available. Multidisciplinary treatment works best.


Prevention

  • Discourage

  • Downplay _________; promote healthful behavior

  • Promote eating when

  • Do not use food as

  • Teach proper nutrition and healthy weight approaches


Adolescents and Athletics

  • ________is the nutrient of primary concern for athletes in general

  • ________ is a performance and a health risk

    • replace

      for every pound lost in sweat

  • Protein: +6-7 g/day (____% of kcal)

    • More = high fat intake; delayed digestion, absorption; greater dehydration risk


Adolescents and Athletics

  • Energy is primary for still-growing adolescent athletes

    • Boys: maintain

    • Girls: maintain

  • Concern = athletes who manipulate weight

  • Anabolic steroids increase bulk, but also stunt growth and pose health risk

  • Long-term effects of ___________ are unknown


Female Athlete Triad


Prevention

  • Support adolescents through puberty: recognize

  • Teach that ______ = better athletic performance

  • Encourage healthy attitudes from


Adolescent Pregnancy

  • High risk pregnancies due to immaturity:

  • Gynecological age = time from onset of __________

    • < ______ indicates greater risk

    • less time from completion of puberty means less

    • e.g. ________

    • involve _______ if possible


Risks to the Mother

  • bleeding(1st, 3rd trimesters)

  • __

  • difficult

    • cephalopelvic __________

  • pregnancy-induced hypertension

  • infections

  • psychological/social development

  • mortality: 2.5x greater!


Risks to the Baby

  • perinatal and neonatal

  • *

    • babies weigh less than those of adult mothers with same weight gain

    • will covering normal gain help?

  • risk of

  • risk of

  • life with parent(s) who have ____________ skills

  • life with one parent only;

    living below the


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