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HyspIRI Science Measurement Baseline NASA Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey HyspIRI Team PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HyspIRI Science Measurement Baseline NASA Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey HyspIRI Team. The HyspIRI Mission Concept has be Guided by the Science Study Group. Mike [email protected] Rick [email protected]

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HyspIRI Science Measurement Baseline NASA Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey HyspIRI Team

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HyspIRI Science Measurement BaselineNASA Earth Science and Applications Decadal SurveyHyspIRI Team


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The HyspIRI Mission Concept has be Guided by the Science Study Group

Mike [email protected]

Rick [email protected]

Martha [email protected]

Greg [email protected]

David MeyerUSGS [email protected]

Paul [email protected] x102

Alex [email protected]

James [email protected]

Ivan [email protected]

Heidi DierssenU [email protected]

Friedmann [email protected] 604-5183

John GamonU [email protected]

Louis [email protected] 867-2030

Greg [email protected]

Robert [email protected] 354-9136

Simon [email protected]

James [email protected]

Bob [email protected]

John [email protected]

Betsy [email protected]

Peter MinnettU. [email protected]

Frank Muller-KargerU. South FL [email protected]

Scott [email protected] 999 8193

Thomas PainterU. of [email protected]

[email protected]

Dale Quattrochi [email protected]

Vince [email protected]

Dar [email protected]

Dave [email protected]

Phil TownsendU of [email protected]

Kevin [email protected]

Steve [email protected]

Susan UstinUC Davis [email protected]

Rob [email protected] 9194


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NRC Decadal Survey - HyspIRI

The HyspIRI mission includes a global mapping imaging spectrometer and multispectral thermal instrument.  A real-time direct broadcast of a subset of measurements is provided by the intelligent payload module

Multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR) Scanner

Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometer

Map of dominant tree species, Bartlett Forest, NH

Soil C:N Ratio

White Mountain National Forest, NH


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HyspIRI

  • The imaging spectrometer delivers complete measurements from 380 to 2500 nm at 10 nm sampling at high SNR for the entire terrestrial and coastal regions of the Earth every 19 days at the equator with 60 m sampling.  

  • The multispectral thermal instrument measures the same area at the same spatial scale in 8 bands between 3 and 12 microns every 5 days.  

Global Coverage including Coastal Zone (<50m depth)

Multispectral

Thermal

Imaging

Spectrometer


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HyspIRI and the Coastal Ocean

  • HyspIRI will measure the coastal and shallow water regions of the Earth when the water is 50 m or shallower.

  • The 60 m spatial resolution and full spectrum of the imaging spectrometer and 8 bands of the thermal are expected to contribute to science investigations of coastal habitats.

    • Benthic composition, submerged aquatic vegetation, floating aquatic vegetation, emergent vegetation, coral reef environs, estuaries, lagoons, etc.

  • The 19-day revisit of the imaging spectrometer at the equator is not designed for directly monitoring algal blooms. The global sampling will provide useful information for process studies, characterization, and multi-scale sensing with ACE, GEO-CAPE, and LDCM for example.

  • The 10:30 am orbit of HyspIRI will have varying amounts of sun glint. When present, sun glint will need to be accounted for and/or corrected for research in water-covered areas.

    • A quantitative sun glint study has been undertaken, led by E. Hochberg

    • ~100 page report is near final draft and being circulated for review


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Glint Removal: Kaneohe Bay, HI

Before

After

Sample Radiance Spectra

Sample Derived Reflectance Spectra


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Conclusions on sun-glint

  • Glint does not markedly impact coral reef retrievals even under the most severe glint conditions in near-equatorial areas and during seasons with highest zenith angles. Water clarity (or lack thereof) has a much greater impact.

  • Glint does not impair seagrass retrievals

  • Impact of glint on emergent vegetation retrievals is unclear. Because this vegetation is subaerial, NIR and SWIR wavebands are viable for detection and characterization. This may help offset glint effects


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At 60m spatial and 10 nm spectral, HyspIRI has high SNR appropriate for Coastal Habitat Science. Selective spectral and spatial averaging will increase the SNR

SSG Required SNR

Benchmark Radiances

Uniformity Requirement

Cross Track Sample

Depiction

-Grids are the detectors

-dots are the IFOV centers

-Colors are the wavelengths

Requirement

Spectral Cross-Track>95% cross-track uniformity {<0.5 nm min-max over swath}

Spectral-IFOV-Variation>95% spectral IFOV uniformity {<5% variation over spectral range}

Wavelength


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HyspIRI Calibration

The HyspIRI Imaging Spectrometer (IS) has a strong focus on ground and on-orbit calibration.

The instrument concept has a strong emphasis on low scattered light and high stability, and low polarization sensitivity.

OnOrbit Calibration

Lunar View1 per month {radiometric}

Solar Cover Views1 per day {radiometric}

Surface Cal Experiments>6 per year {land and water targets}

Not to scale


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HyspIRI: A Global Mapping Mission Imaging Spectrometer Measurements

Full Spectrum 380 to 2500 at 10 nm

60 m spatial with 150 km swath

Full terrestrial surface downlinked every 19 days

Deep Oceans and ice sheets at 1 km with 60 m experiment support option

10


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HyspIRI compared with possible International Imaging

Spectroscopy Missions

Only HyspIRI provides the full spectrum of data required to address climate-carbon cycle feedbacks articulated in the NRC Decadal Survey

HyspIRI Provides Seasonal and Annual Global Coverage that Uniquely Addresses Critical Gaps in Climate Research and Ecosystem Understanding.

What HyspIRI will collect in 1 year will take 100 years for these sampling missions

US, HyspIRI: a full spectral range (380 to 2500 at 10 nm), high SNR, uniform, 60m spatial with 150 km swath imaging spectrometer and multiband thermal imager (8 band thermal imager from 3-12 μm).

Other countries are occasionally mentioned (China, South Africa, South Korea, etc.). All are proposing first generation small sample process/application missions with scattered terrestrial coverage and no TIR imager


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HyspIRI Science Measurement Summary

  • The National Research Council of the United States National Academies released the Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space that included a global mapping imaging spectrometer as part of the HyspIRI Mission.

  • The NASA designated HyspIRI Science Study Group developed a set of science questions to address the call of the Decadal Survey including critical climate measurements.

  • From these science question as set of Science Traceability Matrixes were developed with corresponding science measurement requirements.

  • A VSWIR imaging spectrometer instrument concept was developed to meet these science measurement requirements and provide a high heritage, low risk concept for acquiring the VSWIR science measurements.

  • The 60 m spatial resolution and full spectrum of the imaging spectrometer and 8 bands of the thermal are expected to contribute to science investigation of coastal habitats.

    • Benthic composition, submerged aquatic vegetation, floating aquatic vegetation, emergent vegetation, coral reef environments, estuaries, lagoons, etc.

  • The HyspIRI VSWIR science requires full coverage of the terrestrial and coastal areas at a 19 revisit to address key elements of the Decadal Survey science including critical climate measurements of the terrestrial biosphere.


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HyspIRI Concept – 2010Ready for Mission Concept Review

Payload

  • Science Instruments:

  • VSWIR: Imaging Spectrometer

    • 380-2500 nm in 10 nm bands

    • 60m spatial resolution

    • Day-side ( 23% duty cycle)

    • 55 Kg, 41 W

  • TIR: Thermal Infrared Scanner

    • 8 bands between 3-12 µm

    • 60m spatial resolution

    • Day and night-side (100% duty cycle)

    • 60 Kg, 103 W

  • Intelligent Payload Module (IPM)

    • 24/7 Direct Broadcast capability

    • subset of science data

    • X-band @ 20 Mbps

    • 11 Kg, 86 W

Mission Architecture

  • Orbit: 626 km Sun-Synchronous, 10:30am LTDN

  • Repeat: 19 day VSWIR / 5 day TIR

  • Downlink: Contacts nearly every orbit to Svalbard (North) and Troll (Antarctica)

  • Science Data: 5.7 Tbits/day

  • Launch Vehicle: Taurus 3210, 2m fairing, 790 kg capability

Spacecraft

Launch Mass: 687 kg, JPL DP Margin: 30%

Required Power: 680W, 7.1 m2 array (965 W capability)

P/L Data Rate: 384 Mbps

Downlink Data Rate: 800 Mbps Dual-pol X-band

Stabilization: 3-axis

Pointing:Control =720 arcsec (per axis 3σ)

Knowledge = 2 arcsec (Pitch/Yaw axis 3σ);

8 arcsec (Roll axis 3σ)

Stability = 5 arcsec/sec (per axis 3σ)

Implementation

Launch Date: ≥ 2016

Lifetime: 3 years, with consumables for 5

Cost Category: Low Cost Decadal Survey

Partners: JPL, GSFC

Mission Class: C, with selected redundancy

Hardware Model: Protoflight

No new technology required


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BackupMeasurement CharacteristicsHeritage Example


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HyspIRI VSWIRScience Measurement Characteristics

Spectral

Range380 to 2500 nm in the solar reflected spectrum

Sampling<= 10 nm {uniform over range}

Response<= 1.2 X sampling (FWHM) {uniform over range}

Accuracy<0.5 nm

Radiometric

Range & Sampling0 to 1.5 X max benchmark radiance, 14 bits measured

Accuracy>95% absolute radiometric, 98% on-orbit reflectance, 99.5% stability

Precision (SNR)See spectral plots at benchmark radiances

Linearity>99% characterized to 0.1 %

Polarization<2% sensitivity, characterized to 0.5 %

Scattered Light<1:200 characterized to 0.1%

Spatial

Range>150 km

Cross-Track Samples>2500

Sampling<=60 m

Response<=1.2 X sampling (FWHM)

Uniformity

Spectral Cross-Track>95% cross-track uniformity {<0.5 nm min-max over swath}

Spectral-IFOV-Variation>95% spectral IFOV uniformity {<5% variation over spectral range}


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HyspIRI VSWIR Science Measurements Characteristics

Temporal

Orbit Crossing10:30 am sun synchronous descending

Global Land Coast Repeat19 days at equator

Rapid Response Revisit3 days (cross-track pointing)

Sunglint Reduction

Cross Track Pointing4 degrees in backscatter direction

OnOrbit Calibration

Lunar View1 per month {radiometric}

Solar Cover Views1 per day {radiometric}

Dark signal measurements1 per orbit and edge detector tracking

Surface Cal Experiments3 per year {spectral & radiometric}

Data Collection

Land CoverageLand surface above sea level excluding ice sheets

Water CoverageCoastal zone -50 m and shallower

Solar Elevation20 degrees or greater

Open Ocean/Ice SheetsAveraged to 1km spatial sampling

Compression>=3.0 lossless


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Heritage: NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper

  • Passed Preship review 3 May 2007

  • - Mouroulis Offner Design (HyspIRI)

  • - Convex e-beam grating (HyspIRI)

  • 6604a MCT full range detector array, multiplexor & signal chain (HyspIRI)

  • Uniform slit (HyspIRI)

  • 0.5 micron adjustment mounts lockable for flight

  • Aligned to 95% cross-track uniformity (HyspIRI)

  • Aligned to 95% spectral IFOV uniformity (HyspIRI)

  • Meets high SNR requirements (HyspIRI)

  • Passive radiator (HyspIRI)

M3 Spectrometer

Mass 8 kg, Power 15 Watts

Cross-track uniformity > 95%

First spectrum 18 Months from funding start


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M3 on Chandrayaan-1

Launch 22 Oct 2008, India

Moon

View

Moon Mineralogy Mapper

on Chandrayaan-1 in India


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Minerals were mapped within three days of first light (18 Nov 2008)

Reflectance

Light Wavelength (nm)

Human

Vision

Light Wavelength (nm)


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Polar Areas Exhibit Notable 3-µm Absorption

Thermal emission has not been removed from these spectra.

Only the red spectrum exhibits a detectable emission component.

These data were acquired at relatively low solar illumination.

[~50 degrees at the equator]


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Relative Strength of the 3-µm Absorption

Goldschmidt

This is early an early analysis result.


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Cover of Science 23 Oct 2009

R 2-µm absorption

largely pyroxene

G Brightness

B 3-µm absorption

OH/H2O


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Image of Earth from the Moon acquired by the NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) that is a guest instrument onboard the ISRO Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. Australia is visible in the lower center of the image. The image is presented as a false color composite with oceans dark blue, clouds white, and vegetation enhanced green. The data were acquired on the 22nd of July 2009.


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M3 On-Orbit Spectral

O2

H2O

Projected IFOV: 269 km

Cross-track samples: 47

H2O


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