Solids and liquids
Download
1 / 17

Solids and Liquids - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 139 Views
  • Uploaded on

Solids and Liquids. Chapter 14. Intermolecular forces . Intramolecular forces. The forces that occur among molecules that cause them to aggregate to form a solid or a liquid. Bonding forces that hold atoms together within a molecule . Intermolecular forces.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Solids and Liquids' - paley


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Solids and liquids

Solids and Liquids

Chapter 14


Intermolecular forces

Intramolecular forces

The forces that occur among molecules that cause them to aggregate to form a solid or a liquid

  • Bonding forces that hold atoms together within a molecule


Intermolecular forces
Intermolecular forces

  • Dipole-dipole attraction- molecules with dipole moments can attract each other by lining up so that the positive and the negative ends are close to each other.




Solutions

Solutions gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

Chapter 15


Soluble vs insoluble
Soluble vs. Insoluble gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

Solubility (or Soluble)

Insolubility (or insoluble)

Incapable of being dissolved within a given solution

  • Something that is capable of being dissolved in a solvent


Solubility rules
Solubility Rules gas atoms and nonpolar molecules


Examples
Examples gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

  • State which of the following compounds are soluble and which are not

    • KBr =

    • PbCO3 =

    • BSO3 =

    • zinc hydroxide =


  • KBr gas atoms and nonpolar molecules = Soluble

  • PbCO3 = Insoluble

  • BSO3=Insoluble

  • zinc hydroxide = Insoluble


Types of solutions
Types of solutions gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

  • Solution-a homogeneous mixture

  • Solvent-the largest substance that is present within the solution

  • Solutes-the smallest substance within the solution

  • Aqueous solution-solutions with water as a solvent

  • Saturated-a solution that contains as much solute as will dissolve at the temperature

  • Unsaturated- a solution that has not reached the limit of solute that will dissolve

  • Concentrated-a large amount of solute dissolved

  • Dilute-a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved

  • Supersaturated- a solution that contains more dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances


Molarity vs molality
Molarity gas atoms and nonpolar moleculesvs Molality

Molarity

Molality

The amount of substance of solute, divided by the mass of solvent.

The number of moles of solute divided by the number of kilograms of solvent

Moles of solute = mol Kg of Solution kg

  • (M)

  • Describes the amount of solute in moles and the volume of the solution in liters.

  • The number of moles of solute per volume of solution in Liters

  • Moles of Solute = mol Liters of Solution L


Example of calculating molarity
Example of calculating Molarity gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

  • Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.5 g of solid NaOH in enough water to make 1.50L of solution.

  • Step 1: calculate the number of moles in NaOH

    • 11.5g x 1mol = 0.288moles 40 g

  • Step 2: divide number of moles by the number of Liters

    • 0.288moles = 0.192M 1.50 L


Example of calculating molality
Example of calculating Molality gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

  • What is the molality of a solution made from 2.4 moles of NaCl and 0.80 kg of water?

  • Divide number of moles by the number of kilograms:

    • 2.4 moles = 3.0m 0.80 kg


Net ionic equation
Net Ionic Equation gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

  • Ionic equations are used to describe the chemical reaction while also clearly indicating which of the reactants and products exist primariy as ions in aqueous solutions.


Rules for writing net ionic equations
Rules for writing net ionic equations gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

  • Start with a balanced molecular equation (meaning: an equation that shows the chemical formulas of all reactants and products, but not their physical states)

  • Break all soluble strong electrolytes (compounds with (aq) beside them into their ions

    * indicate the correct formula and charge of each ion

    * indicate the correct number of each ion

    * write (aq) after each ion

  • Bring down all compounds with (s), (l), or (g) uncharged


For example
For example gas atoms and nonpolar molecules

Use the following equations to answer the question:

2Na3PO4(aq) + 3CaCl2(aq) 6NaCl(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s)

Net ionic equation:

6Na+ (aq) + 2PO4-3(aq) + 3Ca+2(aq) + 6Cl-(aq) 6Na+(aq) +6Cl-(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s)


ad