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地球の層構造. Bullen, Keith Edward (1906 - 1976) 29 June 1906, Auckland, New Zealand. Bullen (1936)は地殻をA層、マントルをB層, C層, D層、外核をE層, F層、内核をG層に分け、速度分布、密度分布を求め た。. A 層 地殻  Crust -- モホ面  Moho discontinuity-- B 層 上部マントル  Upper mantle --410 km 地震波不連続面 --- 410km seismic discontinuity

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slide1
地球の層構造

Bullen, Keith Edward (1906 - 1976)

29 June 1906, Auckland, New Zealand

Bullen(1936)は地殻をA層、マントルをB層, C層, D層、外核をE層, F層、内核をG層に分け、速度分布、密度分布を求めた。

A層 地殻 Crust

--モホ面 Mohodiscontinuity--

B層 上部マントル Upper mantle

--410 km地震波不連続面--- 410km seismic discontinuity

C層 マントル遷移層 Mantle transition zone

--660 km地震波不連続面---660km seismic discontinuity

D層 下部マントル Lower mantle

--D”層 核マントル境界 Core-mantle boundary (CMB)

E層 外核 Outer core

--F層 内核境界 Inner core boundary (ICB)

G層 内核 Inner core

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応力と歪 (テンソル量)

歪(ひずみ) Strain

1+DV/V= (1+Dl/l)3 ~ 1+ 3Dl/l すなわち DV/V=3Dl/l (無限小歪の時)

slide6

m

m

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地震波の種類・伝わり方

P 波、S 波、表面波

7

refraction and reflection of a beam of light
Refraction and Reflection of a Beam of Light

屈折

Refraction

Reflection

反射

comparison of p wave and s wave motion
Comparison of P-wave and S-wave Motion

SH波とSV波

S波には二つの振動モードがある。

極性(Polarization)

10

2 surface waves
2種類の表面波 Surface Waves

Rayleigh wave

レイリー波

Love wave

ラブ波

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地震波の反射と屈折

Snell(スネル)の法則

入射波

屈折波

反射波

P波

P波、SV波

P波、SV波

SH波

SH波

SH波

SV波

P波、SV波

P波、SV波

map of gsn fdsn
広帯域ディジタル地震計観測点Map of GSN & FDSN

質の良い、密度の高い観測網

13

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内核の発見(1936)

Dr. Inge Lehmann (1888-1993), 内核の発見者  Born in Denmark in 1888

The existence of an inner core distinct from the liquid outer core was discovered in 1936 by seismologist Inge Lehmann[3] using observations of earthquake-generated seismic waves that partly reflect from its boundary and can be detected by sensitive seismographs on the Earth\'s surface.

earthquake terms
Earthquake terms

focus: site of initial rupture

震源:最初に破壊した場所

epicenter: point on surface above the focus

震央:震源上の地表の点

seismic travel time curve
Seismic Travel-time Curve走時曲線

Fig. 18.9b

震央距離 Δ (度)

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