地球の層構造
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地球の層構造. Bullen, Keith Edward (1906 - 1976) 29 June 1906, Auckland, New Zealand. Bullen (1936)は地殻をA層、マントルをB層, C層, D層、外核をE層, F層、内核をG層に分け、速度分布、密度分布を求め た。. A 層 地殻  Crust -- モホ面  Moho discontinuity-- B 層 上部マントル  Upper mantle --410 km 地震波不連続面 --- 410km seismic discontinuity

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地球の層構造

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2701283

地球の層構造

Bullen, Keith Edward (1906 - 1976)

29 June 1906, Auckland, New Zealand

Bullen(1936)は地殻をA層、マントルをB層, C層, D層、外核をE層, F層、内核をG層に分け、速度分布、密度分布を求めた。

A層 地殻 Crust

--モホ面 Mohodiscontinuity--

B層 上部マントル Upper mantle

--410 km地震波不連続面--- 410km seismic discontinuity

C層 マントル遷移層 Mantle transition zone

--660 km地震波不連続面---660km seismic discontinuity

D層 下部マントル Lower mantle

--D”層 核マントル境界 Core-mantle boundary (CMB)

E層 外核 Outer core

--F層 内核境界 Inner core boundary (ICB)

G層 内核 Inner core


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地球の柱状図


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応力と歪 (テンソル量)

歪(ひずみ) Strain

1+DV/V= (1+Dl/l)3 ~ 1+ 3Dl/l すなわち DV/V=3Dl/l (無限小歪の時)


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応力(Stress)


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弾性定数のいろいろ (応力と歪の関係)


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m

m


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地震波の種類・伝わり方

P 波、S 波、表面波

7


Refraction and reflection of a beam of light

Refraction and Reflection of a Beam of Light

屈折

Refraction

Reflection

反射


P pp s

地震波の記録:P, PP, S 波と表面波


Comparison of p wave and s wave motion

Comparison of P-wave and S-wave Motion

SH波とSV波

S波には二つの振動モードがある。

極性(Polarization)

10


2 surface waves

2種類の表面波 Surface Waves

Rayleigh wave

レイリー波

Love wave

ラブ波


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地震波の反射と屈折

Snell(スネル)の法則

入射波

屈折波

反射波

P波

P波、SV波

P波、SV波

SH波

SH波

SH波

SV波

P波、SV波

P波、SV波


Map of gsn fdsn

広帯域ディジタル地震計観測点Map of GSN & FDSN

質の良い、密度の高い観測網

13


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内核の発見(1936)

Dr. Inge Lehmann (1888-1993), 内核の発見者  Born in Denmark in 1888

The existence of an inner core distinct from the liquid outer core was discovered in 1936 by seismologist Inge Lehmann[3] using observations of earthquake-generated seismic waves that partly reflect from its boundary and can be detected by sensitive seismographs on the Earth's surface.


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P-波の伝播

15


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S-波の伝播

16


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P-波とS-波の伝播経路

17

Fig. 19.3


Seismic tomography scan of a section of the mantle

Seismic Tomography Scan of a Section of the Mantle

Subducted slab

Fig. 19.9


Earthquake terms

Earthquake terms

focus: site of initial rupture

震源:最初に破壊した場所

epicenter: point on surface above the focus

震央:震源上の地表の点


Elastic rebound theory

Elastic Rebound Theory

Fig. 18.1a


Elastic rebound theory1

Elastic Rebound Theory

Fig. 18.1b


Elastic rebound theory2

Elastic Rebound Theory

Fig. 18.1c


Elastic rebound theory3

Elastic Rebound Theory

Fig. 18.1d


Time lag between s and p waves as with distance from epicenter

Time Lag Between S and P waves as with Distance from Epicenter

Fig. 18.9a


Seismic travel time curve

Seismic Travel-time Curve走時曲線

Fig. 18.9b

震央距離 Δ (度)


Locating the epicenter

Locating the Epicenter

Fig. 18.9c


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