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AGN FEEDBACK IN GALAXY GROUPS — THE CASE OF HCG 62 —. Myriam Gitti (SAO-CfA). In collaboration with: E. O'Sullivan (SAO-CfA) , S. Giacintucci (SAO-CfA) , L. David (SAO-CfA) , J. Vrtilek (SAO-CfA) , S. Raychaudhury (Univ. Birmingham), P. Nulsen (SAO-CfA)

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AGN FEEDBACK IN GALAXY GROUPS — THE CASE OF HCG 62 —

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Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

AGN FEEDBACK IN GALAXY GROUPS — THE CASE OF HCG 62 —

Myriam Gitti

(SAO-CfA)

In collaboration with:

E. O'Sullivan (SAO-CfA), S. Giacintucci (SAO-CfA),

L. David (SAO-CfA), J. Vrtilek (SAO-CfA),

S. Raychaudhury (Univ. Birmingham), P. Nulsen (SAO-CfA)

With thanks to:

C. Jones (SAO-CfA), W. Forman (SAO-CfA), T. Ponman (Univ. Birmingham)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Cooling Flow

cooling and accretion onto a central BH

AGN outburst

cooling is reestablished

cooling is arrested

system settles down

Cooling flow regulation in galaxy clusters and groups

MS0735.6+7421

Main candidate to solve the

“Cooling Flow Problem”:

Feedback by central AGN

McNamara et al. 05, 09

McNamara & Nulsen 07

Gitti et al. 07

Rich clusters: detection of X-ray cavities and AGN-driven shocks

 dominant contribution from (recurrent) outbursts from the central AGN, hosted by the cD galaxy at the center of (almost) every cool core clusters

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Why do galaxy groups matter?

Groups are the location of most galaxies in the Universe (Eke et al. 2004)

NGC 5044

NGC 4636

Chandra 0.3-2.0 keV

Examining outbursts in systems smaller than the well-studied rich clusters is valuable for a number of reasons:

  • shallow group potentiallarge impact on intragroup medium;

  • low pressure environmentmore apparent radio/thermal gas interaction;

  • significant influence on galaxy evolution

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

The project: a joint X-ray / radio study

For a sample of 18 X-ray bright groups of galaxies:

X-ray data:

archival Chandra and/or XMM-Newton observations

Low frequency radio data:

GMRT observations at 150, 235, 327 & 610 MHz

geometry, physical state,

and energetics of the hot gas

loci of energy injection, history of AGN outbursts through spectral aging of electrons

NGC 507

NGC 507

NGC 507

* How do X-ray and radio structures correlate?

* What are the properties of the central radio source and

what do they imply for ages, outburst cycles,..?

* What are the effects of AGN at various phases of activity?

* What are the mechanisms of energy injection?

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA

GMRT 610 MHz on Chandra


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Group Name

235 MHz

610 MHz

Group Name

235 MHz

610 MHz

UGC 408

X

X

NGC 3411

X

X

NGC 315

X

X

NGC 4636

X

X

NGC 383

X

X

HCG 62

X

X

NGC 507

X

X

* NGC 5044

X

X

NGC 741

X

X

NGC 5813

X

-

HCG 15

X

X

NGC 5846

-

X

NGC 1407

X

X

* AWM 4

X

X

NGC 6269

X

X

NGC 1587

X

X

NGC 7626

X

X

MKW 2

X

X

Targets and status of the GMRT observations

observed at 150 MHz

All have Chandra and/or XMM data

  • Temperatures 1-3 keV

  • All have at least NVSS 1.4 GHz data initially

  • Presence of X-ray or radio structure indicative of AGN interaction with hot gas

observed at 327 MHz

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Group Name

235 MHz

610 MHz

Group Name

235 MHz

610 MHz

UGC 408

X

X

NGC 3411

X

X

NGC 315

X

X

NGC 4636

X

X

NGC 383

X

X

NGC 507

X

X

NGC 741

X

X

NGC 5813

X

-

HCG 15

X

X

NGC 5846

-

X

AWM 4

X

X

NGC 1587

X

X

NGC 6269

X

X

NGC 7626

X

X

MKW 2

X

X

Targets and status of the GMRT observations

NGC 4636 Baldi et al. 2009

HCG 62 Gitti et al. in prep.

*NGC 5044 David et al. 2009

NGC 1407X X

*AWM 4Giacintucci et al. 2008

MKW 2 Giacintucci et al. 2007

* see posters !

David et al.

Giacintucci et al.

Vrtilek et al.

Data for all groups will be presented in Giacintucci et al. in prep.

New Chandra data

O’Sullivan et al. in prep.

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Chandra

NGC4778

NGC4776

NGC4761

NGC4764

(Morita et al. 02)

1=17 kpc

DSS

The compact group of galaxies HCG 62(z = 0.014)

  • One of the most intrinsically luminous of the 100 Hickson compact groups: LX ≈ 1043 erg s-1

  • VLA 1.4 GHz : S = 6.6 mJy

  • Very clear, small X-ray cavities (radio ghost) — first detection in a galaxy group —

(Vrtilek et al. 02)

beam=1812

lowest contour at 0.3 mJy/beam

  • central region dominated by 4 early-type galaxies

  • NGC 4778 possibly interacting with NGC 4761 (Spavone et al. 06)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

X-RAY DATA:Chandra 50 ks(2000)

raw 0.5-2.0 keV ACIS

Unsharp masked image

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

X-RAY DATA:XMM90 ks(2007)

mosaic 0.5-2.0 keV MOS+PN

Unsharp masked image

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

235610 = 1.42

(new!)RADIO DATA: GMRT 2h(2008)

P610 =5.41021 W Hz-1

P235 =2.11022 W Hz-1

beam=14"x14"

beam=14"x12"

XMM

Chandra

beam=14"x14"

beam=14"x12"

610 MHz:

r.m.s. = 65 Jy/beam

S = 12.8 mJy (6.9 mJy core)

235 MHz:

r.m.s. = 230 Jy/beam

S = 49.6 mJy (15.1 mJy core)

(Giacintucci et al., in prep.)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

X-RAY / RADIO INTERACTION

– Pressure – – Energy budget –

Pcav =3.91042 erg s-1

LICM=1.81042 erg s-1

The AGN outburst is currently supplying about twice the power lost by radiation within the cooling region

(Rafferty et al. 06)

L[10MHz-10GHz]= 41038 erg s-1

The radio luminosity is much less than the mechanical power

 radiative efficiency ~ 10-4

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

X-RAY / RADIO INTERACTION

– Pressure – – Energy budget –

Cavity N:

PX / Pradio ~ 4

Cavity S:

PX / Pradio ~ 2

The cavities are close to pressure balance

Pcav =3.91042 erg s-1

LICM=1.81042 erg s-1

The AGN outburst is currently supplying about twice the power lost by radiation within the cooling region

(Rafferty et al. 06)

Vice versa:

Epr = k Eel

k = [6-27]required for pressure equilibrium

 “light”hadronic jets

L[10MHz-10GHz]= 41038 erg s-1

The radio luminosity is much less than the mechanical power

 radiative efficiency ~ 10-4

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

SHOCK FRONT Chandra SB profile

Shock model - fit to SB

Rshock=35.7 kpc

(Gitti, O’Sullivan, Giacintucci et al., in prep.)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

SHOCK FRONT Chandra T profile

post-shock

pre-shock

post-shock

pre-shock

  • Shock model properties:

  • Mach = 1.45

  • Energy = 6.21057 erg

  • Age = 2.7107 yr

  • Power = 7.31042 erg s-1 ~2Pcav

measured ~15% T jump across the front

(Gitti, O’Sullivan, Giacintucci et al., in prep.)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

SHOCK FRONT Chandra vs. XMM T profile

Things only Chandra can see! :)

post-shock

pre-shock

post-shock

pre-shock

  • Shock model properties:

  • Mach = 1.45

  • Energy = 6.21057 erg

  • Age = 2.7107 yr

  • Power = 7.31042 erg s-1 ~2Pcav

XMM

measured ~15% T jump across the front

Chandra

(Gitti, O’Sullivan, Giacintucci et al., in prep.)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Fit to Chandra SB

ne jump ~ 2

Chandra T profile

A cold front?

Rfront = 20 kpc

Work in progress…

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

TEMPERATURE MAP

Cool region along the N cavity limbs

why not in the S one?

maybe heated by the

passage of the shock

asymmetric shock?

Chandra spectral map

(XMM consistent)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Fe-ABUNDANCE MAP

Arc-like region of enriched material

at ~2 from the center

– stripping from

central galaxies?

– tidal interaction?

(see Gu et al 2007)

but also..

possible Fe abundance overestimate due to non-Maxwellian electron distributions near the shock

(Kaastra et al. 2009)

cs ~ 500 km s-1

Chandra spectral map

(XMM consistent)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Summary

  • Elliptical-dominated galaxy groups are an ideal laboratory to investigate AGN-driven feedback:

    • Groups show generally similar phenomenology to clusters, with many radio and X-ray features that are the direct result of AGN activity

    • Groups are an important/dominant locus for evolution of baryonic material

  • Our analysis of HCG 62 demonstrates the power of a combined X-ray / (low-frequency) radio approach to the feedback problem:

    – Low-frequency radio emission detected in the cavities

    – “Light” hadronic jets (k~10-30)

    – Detection of shock front with M ~ 1.45, Eshock~3Ecav

  • A similar study will be carried out for other individual interesting groups in the sample (e.g., NGC 3411, NGC 1407, NGC 741..)

  • Statistical analysis and study of X-ray/radio properties of the whole group sample (in progress..)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

lowest contour at 1

lowest contour at 2

CHANDRA + GMRT 235 MHz

lowest contour at 2

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

CHANDRA + VLA 1.4 GHz

beam=1814;

lowest contour at 0.7 mJy/beam

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

SHOCK FRONT  T profile (90% c.l.)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

SHOCK FRONT  spectra

post-shock: T = 1.51 keV

pre-shock: T = 1.33 keV

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

SHOCK FRONT  T map

(from energy of blended Fe-L line)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

COLD FRONT  T profile (90% c.l.)

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Azimuthally-averaged SB profile

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


Agn feedback in galaxy groups the case of hcg 62

Properties of group members

  • NGG4778 (HCG 62a): S0 galaxy with kinem. and morph. peculiarities

  • rotation curve not symmetric with respect to the center; velocity dispersion: 380 km/s (center), ~300 km/s (r>5), ~420 km/s (r~25  to SW)

  • nuclear counterrotation, distorted kinematics in the outer halo, and X-ray group properties suggest that NGC 4778 may be the product of a recent minor merger, likely with a small late-type galaxy (Spavone et al. 06)

  • hierarchical mergers of cluster galaxies might power the emission line gas in the center of the group members

  • H emission observed in NCG4778 (also in NCG4776 and NCG4761);

  • L(H ) ~ 1039 erg s-1 (in each galaxy)  total mass of ionized gas ~ 104 Msun

  • (Valluri & Anupama 96)

  • No evidence of AGN activity in the X-ray data (no point source) in NGC 4778

Myriam Gitti - Chandra's First Decade of Discovery

Myriam Gitti — Chandra’s First Decade of Discovery — 23 September 2009, Boston MA


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