Phil Anderson (1972) "More is Different". limitations of “representative individual” “mean field” / continuum / linear way of thinking
The Microscopic Representation Method.
MICRO - the relevant microscopic degrees of freedom
INTER - their fundamental interactions
MACRO - the macroscopic emerging collective objects
At 1000 C nothing special happens to one or two H2O molecules! or 100 or 1000!
How come that 1 Kg of them behave so dramatically?
- Microscopic Customers and Macroscopic Sales
MICRO– Customers, products / ideas / information
INTER– purchase, inform, learn, hear-say
MACRO– global trends, waves of sales (e.g. Tamaguchi), hits, flops, market fluctuations, anomalous diffusion
From non-sales at all to a lot of sales
Infinitely sharp at infinite size system
ALSO: effects of
Fractal space-time fluctuationsProduct Success prediction (15/ 17)
- Microscopic Investors and Macroscopic Crashes /Power Laws
MICRO - Investors, individual capital,shares
INTER - sell/buy orders, gain/loss
MACRO - social wealth distribution, market price fluctuations
(cycles, crushes, booms, stabilization by noise)
-Microscopic Concepts and Macroscopic Ideas
MICRO - concepts, connections between concepts
INTER - creating/deleting/activating connections between concepts
- Microscopic Seers and Macroscopic Sight
MICRO - motion visual sensors for points and line elements.
INTER - time and space local data integration.
MACRO - Perception of 3 Dimensional global structure.
- Microscopic Picassos and Macroscopic Drawings
MICRO - local line / motion features, mental states, mental eventsINTER - line breaks and mind events(changes) vs line/mind inertia.MACRO - drawing shapes, emergence of representational meaning
- Microscopic Doctors and Macroscopic Health
MICRO - Cells, Enzimes, Antigens, AntibodiesINTER- producing, destroying, changing state of a cell/enzime,MACRO- immunity, health, infection, sickness, inflamation.
Microscopic Grimm Brothers and Macroscopic Stories
MICRO – persons, relations
INTER – change in relations ; acting
MACRO –plot, story, meaning
Copy a gene to another location
Microscopic Investors and Macroscopic Crashes
M. Levy, H. Levy and S. Solomon,
Economics Letters 45 (1994) 103-111.
Fundamentalists believe the market will eventually revert to the fundamental price.
Hence, the price they offer will be determined by:
Chartists, believe in trends they. The simplest choice for short times is a linear extrapolation
Noise-traders are making “random” offers at a price randomly distributed around the current price.
L.Muchnick and S.Solomon
Physica Scripta, in press
Stock market shock explained
Physicists model recent trading frenzy.1 October 2002
Newton(after loosing 20 K Pounds in stock market)“I can calculate the motions of heavenly bodies,but not the madness of people.“
Market makersMarket 'spikes' are seen by traders as freak events.Physicists expect them, Thursday October 3, 2002
Levy, Solomon and Levy's Microscopic Simulation of Financial Markets points us towards the future of financial economics."Harry M. Markowitz, Nobel Laureate in Economics
Jacob Goldenberg, David Mazursky, and Sorin Solomon Science 285: 1495-1496, 1999;
Figure 2b: General scheme underlying the replacement version of the pictorial analogy template
Communication at the speed of sound
Examples of Replacement computer produced ideas
·Image of Apple Computer Terminal/ handing of Flowers (for advertising Apple computers friendliness)
·Texture of Tennis Ball / Temple Mountain Mosque (for advertising World Cup Tennis Tournament in Jerusalem).
·Shape of Plane/ Coo-coo in Coo-coo Clock (for advertising the time accuracy of a flight company).
·Picture of Jeeps/ Speaking in Sign Language (for silent car engine) shape of car/ bullet (for fast car).
Table 2: Idea Ratings for the Four Sources
What Are Stories Made Of? Quantitative Categorical Deconstruction of CreationY. Stolov,M. Idel, S. Solomon, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 11 (2000) 1 ;
EVENT EVENT NO EVENT TOTAL DENSITY
but and NO LINK LENGTH
NO LINK LINK
RAVEN 9 8 1 1652 0.7 %
PRINCESS 12 3 1312 1.4 %
(Lost Princess story has no end)
21 commentators, 29 events
Ordered in nr of commentators.
Highest one diagonal was only rank 14
Only one non-link below it.
Testing the Turing Test
Do Men pass it?
Turing himself talks about imitation
game between man and woman!
Losing All Battles and Wining the War
HIV time hierarchy:
U Hershberg, Y Louzoun, H Atlan and S Solomon Physica A: 289 (1-2) (2001) pp.178-190 ; http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/nlin.AO/0006023
Ai Ai+AiVirons multiply
Ai+Bi Ai+Bi+BiImmune cellsmultiply when they meet virons with complementary shape to theirs
Bi+Ai BiVirons are destroyed when detected by immune cells of complementary shape
Ai Ai 1Virons can mutate (actually in a n-dim space)
Ai+B* Ai Immune cells of any type are destroyed when infected by viruses of any type
A = antigens (virons)
B = cells of the immune system
i = index of the particular characteristic shape of virus/immune cell
New strains appear and are destroyed within weeks.
Many new small strains accumulate and destroy many immune system cells. The system collapses
The strains of the first invasion are completely wiped out
Image Speed and assumption x~y~zNOTImage Speed and acceleration(3 times formulae)
3D rigidity perception insenstive to large up to x2 deformations
LOST of 3D rigidity
Vision Research 35 (1995) 463-476.