Phil Anderson  (1972) "More is Different".
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Phil Anderson (1972) "More is Different". limitations of “representative individual” “mean field” / continuum / linear way of thinking

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Phil Anderson (1972) "More is Different".

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  • Phil Anderson (1972) "More is Different".

  • limitations of “representative individual” “mean field” / continuum / linear way of thinking

  • conceptual gaps between various disciplines. - accompanying mysteries connected to the nature of life, intelligence, culture

  • arise exactly when "More Is Different".

  • life emerges from chemistry, chemistry from physics, conscience from life, social conscience/ organization from individual conscience etc.


The Microscopic Representation Method.

MICRO - the relevant microscopic degrees of freedom

INTER - their fundamental interactions

MACRO - the macroscopic emerging collective objects

  • Intrinsically interdisciplinary:

  • Micro belongs to one science

  • Macro to another science

  • Mechanisms: statistical mechanics (?) phase transitions, scale invariance, spontaneous symmetry breaking etc

At 1000 C nothing special happens to one or two H2O molecules! or 100 or 1000!

How come that 1 Kg of them behave so dramatically?


- Microscopic Customers and Macroscopic Sales

MICRO– Customers, products / ideas / information

INTER– purchase, inform, learn, hear-say

MACRO– global trends, waves of sales (e.g. Tamaguchi), hits, flops, market fluctuations, anomalous diffusion

demarketing


Percolation transition

From non-sales at all to a lot of sales

Infinitely sharp at infinite size system


  • ALSO: effects of

  • Expectations Adaptation

  • Self tunning to criticality

  • Fractal fluctuations

    and correlations


ALSO: effects of

Expectations Adaptation

Fractal space-time fluctuationsProduct Success prediction (15/ 17)


Resistance


Resistance


Resistance


Resistance


“ANTI-Percolation”

Antivirus


Parallel Networks

Consumption;

home

Expectations

work


- Microscopic Investors and Macroscopic Crashes /Power Laws

MICRO - Investors, individual capital,shares

INTER - sell/buy orders, gain/loss

MACRO - social wealth distribution, market price fluctuations

(cycles, crushes, booms, stabilization by noise)


-Microscopic Concepts and Macroscopic Ideas

MICRO - concepts, connections between concepts

INTER - creating/deleting/activating connections between concepts

- Microscopic Seers and Macroscopic Sight

MICRO - motion visual sensors for points and line elements.

INTER - time and space local data integration.

MACRO - Perception of 3 Dimensional global structure.


- Microscopic Picassos and Macroscopic Drawings

MICRO - local line / motion features, mental states, mental eventsINTER - line breaks and mind events(changes) vs line/mind inertia.MACRO - drawing shapes, emergence of representational meaning

- Microscopic Doctors and Macroscopic Health

MICRO - Cells, Enzimes, Antigens, AntibodiesINTER- producing, destroying, changing state of a cell/enzime,MACRO- immunity, health, infection, sickness, inflamation.

  • Microscopic Drivers / police and Macroscopic Jams

  • MICRO - cars

  • INTER - go ahead/give way at intersections.

  • MACRO - traffic flow, jamming; self-organization; useless police


Microscopic Grimm Brothers and Macroscopic Stories

MICRO – persons, relations

INTER – change in relations ; acting

MACRO –plot, story, meaning


browse

link

Copy a gene to another location

Internet network

Gene network


Microscopic Investors and Macroscopic Crashes

M. Levy, H. Levy and S. Solomon,

Economics Letters 45 (1994) 103-111.


Fundamentalists believe the market will eventually revert to the fundamental price.

Hence, the price they offer will be determined by:

Chartists, believe in trends they. The simplest choice for short times is a linear extrapolation

Noise-traders are making “random” offers at a price randomly distributed around the current price.


L.Muchnick and S.Solomon

Physica Scripta, in press


Stock market shock explained

Physicists model recent trading frenzy.1 October 2002

Newton(after loosing 20 K Pounds in stock market)“I can calculate the motions of heavenly bodies,but not the madness of people.“

Market makersMarket 'spikes' are seen by traders as freak events.Physicists expect them, Thursday October 3, 2002


Levy, Solomon and Levy's Microscopic Simulation of Financial Markets points us towards the future of financial economics."Harry M. Markowitz, Nobel Laureate in Economics


Creative Sparks

Jacob Goldenberg, David Mazursky, and Sorin Solomon Science 285: 1495-1496, 1999;


Figure 2b: General scheme underlying the replacement version of the pictorial analogy template


Communication at the speed of sound


NY Times


Herald Tribune


Examples of Replacement computer produced ideas

·Image of Apple Computer Terminal/ handing of Flowers (for advertising Apple computers friendliness)

·Texture of Tennis Ball / Temple Mountain Mosque (for advertising World Cup Tennis Tournament in Jerusalem).

·Shape of Plane/ Coo-coo in Coo-coo Clock (for advertising the time accuracy of a flight company).

·Picture of Jeeps/ Speaking in Sign Language (for silent car engine) shape of car/ bullet (for fast car).


Table 2: Idea Ratings for the Four Sources

Creativity RatingsMeanS.D.

Winning Ads3.26.49

Magazine Ads2.88.55

Routine-Generated Ads2.89.48

Laymen-Generated Ads2.22.43

Originality RatingsMeanS.D.

Winning Ads3.33.55

Magazine Ads2.85.58

Routine-Generated Ads2.89.54

Laymen-Generated Ads2.22.46


What Are Stories Made Of? Quantitative Categorical Deconstruction of CreationY. Stolov,M. Idel, S. Solomon, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 11 (2000) 1 ;


EVENT EVENT NO EVENT TOTAL DENSITY

but and NO LINK LENGTH

NO LINK LINK

RAVEN 9 8 1 1652 0.7 %

PRINCESS 12 3 1312 1.4 %

(Lost Princess story has no end)

21 commentators, 29 events

Ordered in nr of commentators.

Highest one diagonal was only rank 14

Only one non-link below it.


Testing the Turing Test

Do Men pass it?


Method:

  • Doing the imitation game not between human and computer but between a man and a woman.

  • Interrogator: needs to discover who is the man and who is the woman. Turing said – can be of either sex

  • Woman: Aim to help the interrogator.

  • Man: Aim to fool the interrogator.

    Turing himself talks about imitation

    game between man and woman!


Losing All Battles and Wining the War

HIV time hierarchy:

U Hershberg, Y Louzoun, H Atlan and S Solomon Physica A: 289 (1-2) (2001) pp.178-190 ; http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/nlin.AO/0006023


Ai  Ai+AiVirons multiply

Ai+Bi Ai+Bi+BiImmune cellsmultiply when they meet virons with complementary shape to theirs

Bi+Ai  BiVirons are destroyed when detected by immune cells of complementary shape

Ai  Ai  1Virons can mutate (actually in a n-dim space)

Ai+B*  Ai Immune cells of any type are destroyed when infected by viruses of any type

A = antigens (virons)

B = cells of the immune system

i = index of the particular characteristic shape of virus/immune cell


New strains appear and are destroyed within weeks.

REALITY

Many new small strains accumulate and destroy many immune system cells. The system collapses

The strains of the first invasion are completely wiped out

SIMULATION


Image Speed and assumption x~y~zNOTImage Speed and acceleration(3 times formulae)

3D rigidity perception insenstive to large up to x2 deformations

LOST of 3D rigidity

feeling

Vision Research 35 (1995) 463-476.


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