UNIT 8 - COTTON, CATTLE & RAILROAD REVIEW. 1. COTTON, CATTLE & RAILROAD ERA. 1865‐1900 Time of huge economic growth, new industries for Texas and rise of technology .
COTTON, CATTLE & RAILROAD REVIEW
Time of huge economic growth, new industries for Texas and rise of technology.
Railroads brought people and business to Texas and enabled farmers and ranchers to transport their products more efficiently. Texas became a leading producer of both cattle and cotton.
Terms of Treaty:
American Indians agreed to live on reservations in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
Government would provide them food and supplies,
Protected from soldiers.
Indians would agree to stop attacking Anglo American settlements.
For: Some Indians signed treaty because of loss of food supply and wanted peace
Against: Some Indians did not want to end their way of life: living off the land and hunting buffalo
- Cowboys drove cattle north to “cow towns” to where the railroad was located before it came to Texas.
They would ship the cattle by railroad to slaughterhouses in the east.
- Ended cattle drives because cattle could be now be moved in Texas
- Brought new settlers to Texas
- New businesses and towns grew at railroad depots and junctions
- Began in southern Texas and ended at “Cow towns” of Abilene, Kansas City, etc. where the railroad was located to ship cattle to slaughterhouses
- Railroads and factories were built throughout Texas to increase trade
- The cotton gin increased production of cotton and made Texas farmers more money
- New jobs and new factories to produce cotton
- Open range is the frontier land where animals roamed freely
- New settlers came in and claimed the land for their own
- Barbed wire and enclosing land prevented animals from grazing any open land
- Definition: System of farming where freed slaves were given land in exchange for a share of the crops (see chart)
- Kept them in a life of debt and poverty and restricted their social advancement
- Ranching is still a part of Texas economy and cattle products are the highest agriculture income in Texas
- Cowboy and ranching lifestyle is a part of Texas culture today
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