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EARTH , SUN, and Moon Interactions. Understanding Climate and Weather What? Why and How?. Guide Questions . Why do we have night and day? What is a day/year? How does sunlight hit the Earth’s surface? (equator, poles) Why is it warmer at the equator and colder at the poles?

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EARTH , SUN, andMoonInteractions



Guide Questions

  • Why do we have night and day?

  • What is a day/year?

  • How does sunlight hit the Earth’s surface? (equator, poles)

  • Why is it warmer at the equator and colder at the poles?

  • Why are there seasons?



Length of Day:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCyTNpcDTUM&feature=related



DAY AND YEAR

Rotation earth’s spinning on its axis

1,600 km/hr (rate of spin at any point along the equator)

Revolution movement of earth

around the sun


Leap year
Leap Year

  • It actually takes the Earth a little longer than a year to travel around the Sun — 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds, to be exact.

  • It was the ancient Egyptians who first figured out that the solar year and the man-made calendar year didn't always match up.

  • It was the Romans who first designated February 29 as leap day

  • That extra day was added to February because February used to be thelast month of the year

http://www.chiff.com/a/leap-year.htm


When do we have leap years
When do we have leap years?

  • a leap day happens in years only divisible by four, i.e., 1996, 2000, 2004

  • Another stipulation ruled that no year divisible by 100 would have a leap year, except if it was divisible by 400. Thus, 1900 was not a leap year ... but 2000 was! Go figure.


Leap years
Leap Years

  • When was the last leap year?

    2008

  • When is the next?

    2012


Number of daylight hours
Number of Daylight Hours

  • Every part of Earth gets about the same number of hours of daylight per year

    • half a year of full daylight

  • BUT, not received the same way

    • EQUATOR: it is delivered evenly -- exactly half a day, every single day, throughout the year.

    • POLES: it is delivered all at once -- half a year of daylight, and then half a year of darkness.

    • MIDLATITUDES: it is delivered in greater or lesser amounts, throughout the year -- some days having more than half a day of daylight, but others, half a year later, having less than half a day, and the average, throughout the year, being half a day of daylight per day


Amount of sunshine
AMOUNT OF SUNSHINE

  • However, although the different regions receive the same number of hours of daylight, they do NOT receive the same amount of sunshine

  • the amount of sunshine which is received over a certain amount of the ground depends upon how high the Sun is in the sky (the angle of the sun’s rays)


When sunlight shines from overhead (on left), one square foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

http://cseligman.com/text/sky/climate.htm


Geography foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.basics

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95TtXYjOEv4

9 mins


March Equinox foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

June Solstice

December Solstice

Sun

September Equinox


Earth motions precession
Earth Motions: foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.PRECESSION

  • Precession – Earth’s axis maintains approximately the same angle of tilt, but the direction in which the axis points continually changes.

  • Currently, the axis points toward Polaris.

  • In the year 14,000, it will point toward Vega.

  • By 28,000, it will point toward Polaris again.


Seasons
SEASONS foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

  • We have seasons because:

    • The Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5o, so different locations receive different amounts of direct sunlight throughout the year.

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=000-3JYM0NI&feature=related


Solstice
SOLSTICE foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

http://members.shaw.ca/len92/geography.htm


Peralta Colleges, Physical Geography foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.


FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

  • Axis or tilt of the Earth

  • Latitude

  • Elevation

  • Precipitation

  • Currents (wind, water)


The foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.latitude and longitude system

Longitude lines run north-south and meet at the North and South Poles; also called meridians.

Latitude lines run east-west and don't meet; also called parallels.


Latitude
Latitude foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

  • The latitude of a country is its angle above or below the equator.

  • For example

    • North Pole - 90° North

    • South Pole - 90° South

    • Paris, France - 48° North

    • Sydney, Australia - 34° South


Latitude1
Latitude foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

Paris

48°

Equator


Latitude2
Latitude foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

  • Some important lines of latitude include

    • The Equator – 0°

    • The Tropic of Cancer – 23.5° N

    • The Tropic of Capricorn – 23.5° S

    • The Arctic Circle – 66.5° N

    • The Antarctic Circle – 66.5° S


Longitude
Longitude foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

The longitude of a country is how far around the earth it lies from London.

For example

Manila - 120° East

New York - 74° West

The time zones follow lines of longitude that are every 15° away from London


Longitude1
Longitude foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

London

New York


TIME ZONES foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.

Time zones: Every 15˚, changes by 1 hour


  • Climate change foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground. due to a country’s location

  • Latitude effect on seasonal change

  • day-light hours

  • precipitation levels (rainfall and snowfall)

  • average (and max, min) temperatures

  • crop growth

  • tourism

  • ecosystems

  • cultural changes due to climate differences (e.g. S.A.D also known as winter blues)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5r3OufiIp5Y foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.


Peralta Colleges, Physical Geography foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.


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