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Telecommunications and Networks


2. Learning Objectives. Identify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications.. 4. 3. Learning Objectives (continued)

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Telecommunications and Networks

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TelecommunicationsandNetworks


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Learning Objectives

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  • Identify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.

  • Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications.


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Learning Objectives (continued)

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  • Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business.

  • Explain the functions of major types of telecommunications network hardware, software, media, and services.


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Section I

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  • The Networked Enterprise


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Networking the Enterprise

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  • Networking business and employees

  • Connecting them to customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.


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Trends in Telecommunications

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Trends in Telecommunications (continued)

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  • Industry

    • More competitive

    • More options for the firm

  • Technology

    • Unrestricted connectivity

    • Easy access for end users

      • Open systems

        • Use common standards for hardware, software, applications, & networking.


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Trends in Telecommunications (continued)

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  • Technology (continued)

    • High degree of interoperability

    • Digital networks

      • Higher transmission speeds

      • Moves larger amounts of information

      • Greater economy

      • Lower error rates

      • Multiple types of communications on the same circuits


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Trends in Telecommunications (continued)

  • Technology (continued)

    • Fiber-optic lines & cellular, PCS, satellite & other wireless technologies

      • Faster transmission speeds


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Trends in Telecommunications (continued)

  • Business applications

    • Dramatic increase in the number of feasible telecommunication applications.

    • Cut costs, reduce lead times, shorten response times, support e-commerce, improve collaboration, share resources, lock in customers & suppliers, & develop new products & services


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Business Value of TelecommunicationsNetworks

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The Internet

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  • A network of networks

  • Popular uses

    • E-mail

    • Instant messaging

    • Browsing the World Wide Web

    • Newsgroups and chat rooms


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The Internet (continued)

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  • The business value of the Internet


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Intranets

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  • Within an organization

  • Uses Internet technologies

  • Business value of Intranets

    • Used for information sharing, communication, collaboration, & support of business processes.

    • Web publishing

      • Comparatively easy, attractive, & lower cost alternative for publishing & accessing multimedia business information


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Intranets (continued)

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  • Business Operations & Management

    • Used for developing & deploying critical business applications

    • Supports operations and managerial decision making


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Extranets

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  • Network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the firm’s intranet with the intranets of customers, suppliers, or other business partners

    • Consultants, subcontractors, business prospects, & others


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Extranets (continued)

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  • Business value

    • Improve communication with customers and business partners

    • Gain competitive advantage in

      • Product development

      • Cost savings

      • Marketing

      • Distribution

      • Leveraging their partnerships


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Section II

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  • Telecommunications Network Alternatives


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Telecommunications Network Alternatives

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A Telecommunications Network Model

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A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)

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  • Consists of five basic components

    • Terminals

      • Any input/output device that uses telecommunication networks to transmit or receive data

    • Telecommunication processors

      • Support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers


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A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)

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  • Telecommunications channels

    • The medium over which data are transmitted and received

  • Computers

    • Interconnected by telecommunications networks

  • Telecommunications control software

    • Control telecommunications activities & manage the functions of telecommunications networks


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Types of Telecommunications Networks

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  • Wide Area Networks (WAN)

    • Cover a large geographic area.

  • Local Area Networks (LAN)

    • Connect computers & other information processing devices within a limited physical area.

    • Connected via ordinary telephone wiring, coaxial cable, or wireless radio & infrared systems


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Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

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  • Virtual Private Networks

    • A secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network, but relies on fire walls and other security features


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Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

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Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

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  • Client/Server Networks

    • Clients – end user PCs or NCs

    • Server – helps with application processing and also manages the network


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Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

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Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

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  • Network computing

    • “the network is the computer”

      • Thin clients process small application programs called “applets.”


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Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

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  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

    • Two major models

      • Central server architecture

      • Pure peer-to-peer


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Telecommunications Media

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  • Twisted-pair wire

  • Coaxial cable

    • Minimizes interference and distortion

    • Allows high-speed data transmission

  • Fiber optics

    • Glass fiber that conducts pulses of light generated by lasers

    • Size and weight reduction

    • Increased speed and carrying capacity


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Telecommunications Media (continued)

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Wireless Technologies

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  • Terrestrial Microwave

    • Line-of-sight path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart.

  • Communications Satellites

    • Geosynchronous orbits

    • Serve as relay stations for communications signals transmitted from earth stations


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Wireless Technologies (continued)

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  • Cellular & PCS Systems

    • Each cell is typically from one to several square miles in area.

    • Each cell has its own low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna.

    • Computers & other communications processors coordinate & control the transmissions to/from mobile users as they move from one cell to another


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Wireless Technologies (continued)

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  • Wireless LANs

    • Spread spectrum

    • Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)

  • Wireless Web

    • Uses Web-enabled information appliances

    • Very thin clients


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Telecommunications Processors

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  • Modems (modulation/demodulation)

    • Changes signals from analog to digital and back to analog

  • Multiplexers

    • Allows a single communication channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals


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Telecommunications Processors (continued)

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  • Internetwork Processors

    • Switches

      • Makes connections between telecomm circuits so a message can reach its intended destination

    • Router

      • Interconnects networks based on different rules or protocols


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Telecommunications Processors (continued)

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  • Hub

    • Port switching communications processor

  • Gateway

    • A processor that interconnects networks that use different communications architecture


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Telecommunications Software

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  • Provides a variety of communications support services including connecting & disconnecting communications links & establishing communications parameters such as transmission speed, mode, and direction.


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Telecommunications Software (continued)

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  • Network Management

    • Traffic management

    • Security

    • Network monitoring

    • Capacity planning


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Network Topologies

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  • Star

    • Ties end user computers to a central computer

    • Considered the least reliable

  • Ring (sometimes called Token Ring)

    • Ties local computer processors together in a ring on a more equal basis.

    • Considered more reliable & less costly


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Network Topologies (continued)

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  • Bus

    • Local processors share the same bus, or communications channel

    • Tree is a variation which ties several bus networks together


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Network Topologies (continued)

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Network Architectures & Protocols

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  • Protocols

    • A standard set of rules & procedures for the control of communications in a network

    • Standards for the physical characteristics of cables and connectors

  • Network Architecture

    • Goal is to promote an open, simple, flexible, efficient telecommunications environment


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Network Architectures and Protocols (continued)

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  • OSI Model

  • TCP/IP

    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

      • Used by the Internet and all intranets and extranets


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Bandwidth Alternatives

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  • Bandwidth is the frequency range of a telecommunications network

  • Determines the channel’s maximum transmission rate

  • Measured in bits per second (bps) or baud

  • Narrow-band

    • Low-speed transmission

  • Broadband

    • High-speed transmission


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Switching Alternatives

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  • Circuit switching

  • Packet switching

  • Cell switching


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Discussion Questions

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  • The Internet is the driving force behind developments in telecommunications, networks, and other information technologies. Do you agree or disagree?

  • How is the trend toward open systems, connectivity, and interoperability related to business use of the Internet, intranets, and extranets?


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Discussion Questions (continued)

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  • How will wireless information appliances and services affect the business use of the Internet and the Web?

  • What are some of the business benefits and management challenges of client/server networks? Network computing? Peer-to-peer networks?


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Discussion Questions (continued)

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  • What is the business value driving so many companies to rapidly install and extend intranets throughout their organizations?

  • What strategic competitive benefits do you see in a company’s use of extranets?


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Discussion Questions (continued)

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  • Do you think that business use of the Internet, intranets, and extranets has changed what businesspeople expect from information technology in their jobs?

  • Do you believe that the insatiable demand for everything wireless, video, and Web-enabled will be the driving force behind developments in telecommunications, networking, and computing technologies for the foreseeable future?


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References

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  • James A. O'Brien; George M. Marakas. Management Information Systems: Managing Information Technology in the Business Enterprise 6th Ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin,2004