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MARPOL Annex VI. TRIPARTITE TOKYO 20th SEPTEMBER 2007. IMO & UNILATERAL LEGISLATION ON LOW SULPHUR MARINE FUELS. ALTERNATIVES on SOx & PM. A. Base Line - No change in SOx regulations B. Global + Regional (SECA) + port (mini SECAs) different S cap values :

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Marpol annex vi

MARPOL Annex VI

TRIPARTITE

TOKYO

20th SEPTEMBER 2007



Alternatives on sox pm
ALTERNATIVES on SOx & PM

  • A. Base Line - No change in SOx regulations

  • B. Global + Regional (SECA) + port (mini SECAs) different S cap values:

    • (possible lower) Global S cap & lower S cap in SECAs

    • USA – [0.1%] S cap up to [200] nm from shore

    • BIMCO proposal – 3% global S cap; 1% 0.5% MDO in SECAs or scrubbers

  • C. GLOBAL S CAP (no SECA):

    • Mandate 1% 0.5% MDO for all ships

    • Global S cap or emissions limit but leave the industry to choose compliance method


Experience with seca
EXPERIENCE WITH SECA

  • So far, complinace by LSFO

  • Switch from HFO to LSFO depends on the ship’s bunker storage capacity and lay-out

  • Standard designs (1 settling & 1 service tanks) provide little flexibility

  • Depending on initial S % of the HFO, fuel switch in at least 48 hrs

  • 60 hours from HFO with 4.04% S to LSFO with 1.3% S


Switch sequence in basic desings
SWITCH SEQUENCE IN BASIC DESINGS

  • Stop HFO transfer from storage to settling tanks (1 to 3 days prior to entry into SECA)

  • Settling tank empty – start transfer of LSFO to the settling tank

  • Service tanks almost empty of HFO – start feeding LSFO from settling tank (some 6 hours before entry into SECA)

  • Cylinder oil feeding rate adjusted or switch to a lower BN cylinder oil

  • Continuous crew attendance/monitoring



Fuel switch over better solutions
FUEL SWITCH OVERBETTER SOLUTIONS

  • Simpler for ships with 2 settling & 2 service tanks (few hours)

  • Complete segregation between HFO & LSFO systems reduces the fuel switch over to matter of minutes and permits automatic control

  • Complete segregation = no risk of incompatibility between HFO & LSFO blends



Secas change over areas
SECAs & CHANGE OVER AREAS

Source: http://maps.google.com/

Changeover

Area

MAY

2006

AUGUST 2007


Secas change over areas1
SECAs & CHANGE OVER AREAS

Source: http://maps.google.com/

New Changeover Area


HOW MANY MORE SECAs?

2012?

2012?

???

???

2012?

2012?

IMPACT ON A LARGE NUMBER OF SHIPS




Scrubbers
SCRUBBERS

Scrubbers for Pride of Kent

  • - large space required in the ship’s funnel;

  • for a main engine of 20 MW, sea water up to 22,000 t/day need to be processed (45t/hr/MW*)

  • - up to 100 kg/day of hazardous sludge (5kg/day/MW*)

* data supplied by Krystallon


Conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

  • Alternative solutions may require new installations and new operations

  • Design standardisation for safe & simpler operation

  • Expected contributions from:

    • Ship operators

    • Ship designers

    • Classification Soceities

  • Future Tripartite cooperation


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