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In the last lesson we discussed about: Objects and Instances Declaring VariablesPowerPoint Presentation

In the last lesson we discussed about: Objects and Instances Declaring Variables

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In the last lesson we discussed about: Objects and Instances Declaring Variables

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In the last lesson we discussed about: Objects and Instances Declaring Variables

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Review

- In the last lesson we discussed about:
- Objects and Instances
- Declaring Variables
- The “=“ used as an assignment operator
- We also looked at the ACM hierarchy

Casting and Precedence

- When performing arithmetic operations in Java we have to understand how precedence (priority) works.
- First priority is given to parenthesis ()
- Second *, /, %
- Least +,-
- Starting from left to right

For example:

- X = 1 + 3 * 5 / 2;
- Lets see how this will evaluate.
- 3 * 5 = 15
- 15 / 2 = 7 (Integer division)
- Add 1
- X=8

Divide integers but get real

- int x = 5; (Integer division)
- double y = x / 2;
- Evaluates the right side first and then returns the answer to the left side
- In order to get a double value we will use a process called CAST!

CAST is just like in a film!

- Just like a film has a cast of characters who act temporarily to fulfill a role similarly in Java a cast is a conversion of one data type to another.
For e.g.:

int x=5;

double y = (double) x/2 (x remains as an integer)

y now contains 2.5 due to the casting on the right side of the equal sign

Calculate Average

- import acm.program.*;
- public class CalculateAverage extends ConsoleProgram {
public void run() {

println(“This program requires two numbers:”);

int n1 = readInt(“Enter n1”);

int n2 = readInt(“Enter n2”);

double avg = n1 + n2 / 2; //BUGGY!

println(“The average is:” + avg + “.”);

}

- } // Whats the problem here?

Short hands

- Seems like x = x +1 is very commonly used in programming languages
- There are short hands for doing this:
- x+=1;
- x++;
- x-=1;
- x--;
- x*=2;
- x/=2;

Constants

- Lets have a look at an example of area of a circle.
- double PI =3.14;
- double A = PI * r * r;
- PI is a variable and it can be changed which means the whole equation will change.
- Defining:
- private static final double PI=3.14;
- You could come up with a constant called SEVENTY_TWO=72

Downloading ACM

- Before beginning to use ACM (Association of Computer Machinery) library you need to download it from:
- http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~eroberts/jtf/acm.jar