The Main Cultural Movements in the West :. The Main Cultural Movements in the West :. The Renaissance. Age of Enlightenment. Modernism. Postmodernism. THE RENAISSANCE. The Renaissance is a French word which means re-birth, revival or re-awakening.
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The Renaissance is a French word which means re-birth, revival or re-awakening.
The Renaissance was both a revival of ancient classical mythology, literature and culture as well as a re-awakening of the human mind, after the long sleep of the dark Middle Ages.
It began in Italy as early as the 14th century with the works of Petrarch and others and was greatly stimulated by the fall of Constantinople in 1453, by the invention of printing in Germany about this very time, and the great discoveries of scientists and navigators which followed.
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe and the American colonies.
Its purpose was to reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith and revelation) and advance knowledge through science.
Originating about 1650 to 1700, it was sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle(1647–1706), physicist Isaac Newton (1643–1727), and philosopher Voltaire (1694–1778).
The term postmodern literature is used to describe certain characteristics of post–World War II literature (relying heavily, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc.) and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature.