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Identification principles and the use of forms and codes. Tore Solheim 2010 Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison. Recognition of a person. Proof of identity Subjective Mistakes? Affectionate state Psychological trauma Later doubt

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identification principles and the use of forms and codes
Identification principles and the use of forms and codes
  • Tore Solheim
  • 2010
  • Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison
recognition of a person
Recognition of a person
  • Proof of identity
  • Subjective
  • Mistakes?
    • Affectionate state
    • Psychological trauma
    • Later doubt
  • Use with outmost caution
person identification
Person identification
  • Comparison of a.m. with p.m. information
  • Objective
  • By neutral experts
  • Must never be wrong
  • Save relatives
identification
Identification
  • Who is responsible?
    • Police
    • Coroner/medical examiner
    • Judge
    • ID-commission (team)
  • How important?
    • Different countries
      • Correct body for burial?
      • Many unidentified bodies?
      • Recognition easy and cheap
work in respect of the dead and their families
Work in respect of the dead and their families
  • Respect of the individual after death
    • Ethics of identification
    • Must use time and effort
  • Only the police have sufficient resources
  • Only the police have international co-operation
    • Interpol
      • Working committee
      • Forms with computer program (DVI-system)
      • Guide
      • Recommendation for international co-operation
odontologic comparison
Odontologic comparison
  • Comparison of odontologic data
  • Radiographic comparison
  • Photographic comparison
  • Superimposition techniques
  • Facial reconstruction techniques
  • Final Identificationmust be a result of a compete evaluation of all evidence
  • Team work
odontologic comparison report
Odontologic comparison report
  • Conclusions
    • Odontologic identity established
    • Odontologic identity probable
    • Odontologic identity possible
    • Odontologic identity excluded
  • Subjective assessment
    • No guide
    • Statistical evidence
statistical considerations
Statistical considerations
  • Keiser-Nielsen
    • Od.id. established
      • At least 12 concordant uncharacteristic features
    • Calculation of possibilities
      • Possibilities are not the same as probabilities
        • Interrelation of fillings
  • Skinner want to reduce the population
    • The dead person can be anyone
  • Only the police can guarantee the missing person list (population)
  • A person not reported missing
wrong identification
Wrong identification?
  • Identification by elimination
  • What is the possibility of a wrong identification
  • DNA comparisons
    • <1/1000 000
  • Odontologic comparison?
  • Identity established???
how frequent occurs another person with the same features
How frequent occurs another person with the same features?
  • Identityestablished
  • < 1/10 000
  • Identity probable
  • < 1//100
  • Identitypossible
  • >1/100
  • Epidemiologic data??
forms
Forms
  • Forensic examinations -> written report
    • Also identification
  • A form
    • Saves time
    • Not forget anything
      • Help for inexperienced
      • All fields should be filled in
  • National forms
    • Often too simple
    • US after Sept 11. form from 2 to 40 pages
      • Prepared for big disasters
the interpol form
The Interpol form
  • International co-operation
  • Revised several times
  • Comprises all 3 fields of Identification
  • 2 out of 15 pages for forensic odontology
  • Used in all Nordic countries
  • Designed for electronic use
    • Cross off boxes
    • DVI system computer program made in Denmark
    • Print the forms
    • Comparison sheet
the odontologic form
The odontologic form
  • A.M and P.M forms
  • F1 administrative page
  • F2 odontologic description
  • A legal report
    • Not a working document
  • Registrations should be complete
  • The report should stand alone
    • All important background information
    • Main police findings
    • Main forensic medical findings
  • All fields should be filled in
the comparison form
The comparison form
  • Formulation of conclusion
  • Reason for the conclusion
    • Explain non-concordant details
    • Write which details the conclusion is based upon
    • Which details (filling) and which tooth
      • 4 amalgam fillings (17,27,36,35)
  • Signature of two dentists
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