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Early River Valley Civilizations ERV’s. ERV--Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is Greek for “between the rivers” The two main rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamia.co.uk. ERV--Mesopotamia. Present-day Mesopotamia resides in the country of Iraq, which is in the Middle East.

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Erv mesopotamia
ERV--Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is Greek for “between the rivers”

The two main rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates

Mesopotamia.co.uk


Erv mesopotamia1
ERV--Mesopotamia

Present-day Mesopotamia resides in the country of Iraq, which is in the Middle East


Erv mesopotamia2
ERV--Mesopotamia

This area is also know as the Fertile Crescent, why?



Erv mesopotamia4
ERV--Mesopotamia

History

Sumerians formed city-states south of Mesopotamia around 3000 B.C.

Sumerians lose control by 2000 B.C. to the Akkadians.

The Akkadians, a Semitic people spoke Hebrew and Arabic.

The Akkadians migrated from the Arabian Peninsula.


Erv mesopotamia5
ERV--Mesopotamia

Government

Priest-King

Priests served as bureaucrats meaning they surveyed the land, assigned fields

and distributed the crops. They also engaged in religious ceremonies.

The king lead the army, administered trade and judged disputes.


Erv mesopotamia6
ERV--Mesopotamia

Law

Hammurabi’sCode—one of the first written laws. Hammurabi was around from 1792-1750 B.C.


Erv mesopotamia7
ERV--Mesopotamia

Law

Lex Talionis

Law of Exact Revenge

An eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life.


Erv mesopotamia8
ERV--Mesopotamia

Law Administration

The law exacts retribution, not humans.

The victim must bring the criminal to court. It was up to the victim or the victim’s family to enforce the sentence.


Erv mesopotamia9
ERV--Mesopotamia

Social Structure

Kings/Priests

Highest and most powerful


Erv mesopotamia10
ERV--Mesopotamia

Nobility

Wealthy, they held large tracts of land


Erv mesopotamia11
ERV--Mesopotamia

Commoners

Owned land but no representation


Erv mesopotamia12
ERV--Mesopotamia

Criminals/Debtors/Prisoners of War

Many of whom were enslaved were allowed to trade


Erv mesopotamia13
ERV--Mesopotamia

Religion

Polytheistic—belief in many gods

Anthropomorphic—resembled humans


Erv mesopotamia14
ERV--Mesopotamia

Writing

Used by bureaucrats to keep records

Writing known as Cuneiform (wedge-shaped characters)

They used a reed (stylus) to draw pictograms into a wet clay tablet.


Erv mesopotamia15
ERV--Mesopotamia

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wksHEDgBRnM



Huang he river
Huang He River

Geography

The Huang He (Yellow) River is located in

northern China. It is called the Yellow River

considering it carries a rich yellow soil

called loess.



Huang he river2
Huang He River

China-tour.cn


Huang he river3
Huang He River

Geography

Northern China

--Semi-arid land

--Long winters

--Level plains in the Eastern half


Huang he river4
huang He River

Origins

Lung Shan Yang Shao

(Long Shan)

Black Pottery Painted Pottery

(Red and Black)

They merged by 2000 BC to produce towns and the Shang

Dynasty started in 1600 BC.


Huang he river shang dynasty
HUANG HE RiverShang Dynasty

Sdmuseum.com


Huang he river shang dynasty1
HUANG HE RiverShang Dynasty


Huang he river shang dynasty2
HUANG HE RiverShang Dynasty


Huang he river shang dynasty3
HUANG HE RiverShang Dynasty


Huang he river shang dynasty4
HUANG HE RiverShang Dynasty

Artsmia.org


Huang he river shang dynasty5
HUANG HE RIVERShang Dynasty

Government

The Shang king descended from a god Shang Di.

Decision by Divination

--flat shoulder bone of a cattle or the lower tortoise shell

--A question was written and either heated in a fire or with a hot piece of metal

--The shells or bones cracked and the answers were deciphered based on the length of the crack.


Huang he river shang dynasty6
HUANG HE RIVERShang Dynasty

Social Structure

King

Nobles and aristocracy

Commoners and artisans

Slaves and war captives

The Shang believed that slaves didn’t have souls or spirits and could safely be killed.


Huang he river shang dynasty7
HUANG HE RiverShang Dynasty

Religion

Ancestor worship has their origins with the Shang Dynasty

Living relatives were to intercede on behalf of the deceased.


Huang he river shang dynasty8
HUANG HE RIVERShang Dynasty

Architecture

Cities were made of pounded earth walls with heavy gates.

The city of Zhengzhou the earth wall was 20 feet high and a mile square.


Huang he river shang dynasty9
HUANG HE RIVERShang Dynasty

Technology

Bronze--a mixture of copper, tin, lead and zinc

Calendars were used for agriculture

Astronomy—records of sunspots and eclipses


Huang he river shang dynasty10
HUANG HE RIVERShang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty—Minneapolis Institute of Arts

http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/dynasty-shang.cfm


Huang he river shang dynasty11
HUANG HE RIVERShang Dynasty

Website

http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/chinatimeline/dynasty3.swf


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