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疾病的分布 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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疾病的分布. 疾 病 的 分 布 (distribution of disease). 疾病的分布是以疾病的频率为指标,描述疾病在不同的地区、时间和人群的分布现象(简称疾病 “ 三间 ” 分布)。. 第一节 疾病频率常用的测量指标 第二节 疾病的分布. 第一节 疾病频率常用的测量指标. 率和比的概念 发病指标 死亡指标. 某现象实际发生的例数 可能发生该现象的总人数. 率=. × k. k = 100% , 1000‰ , ……. 一、率和比的概念. 率( rate )

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疾病的分布

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5194041


5194041

(distribution of disease)


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k

k100%1000

  • rate


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100

  • ratio


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100

  • proportion


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()(incidence rate)

k=100%1000100000/


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()

,

,

,


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()(attack rate)

1

k=100% 1000


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() (prevalence rate)

k=100%, 1000, 10000/100000/10


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()

,


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()


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()(infection rate)

,,


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()(secondary attack rateSAR)

,,


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()(mortality rate )

k1000100000/10


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  • (crude death rate)

  • (specific death rate)

    • ,


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()(mortality rate )

,

,


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()(fatality rate )


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()n

,

()survival rate


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PYLL

()

potential years of life lost, PYLL


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(sporadic)


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(outbreak )


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(epidemic)

,


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()

    • ,,


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()

  • ,


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()


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()


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() (rapid fluctuation)

,,


Seasonally

()(seasonally)


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() (periodicity)

,


Periodicity

() (periodicity)


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() (secular trend)

(secular change)

(),


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() (secular trend)


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()


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()


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()

    • (cross sectional analysis)

    • (birth cohort analysis)


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()


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()


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()


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()


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()

1.,

2.

3.


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()


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  • (migrant epidemiology)


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