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疾病的分布 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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疾病的分布. 疾 病 的 分 布 (distribution of disease). 疾病的分布是以疾病的频率为指标,描述疾病在不同的地区、时间和人群的分布现象(简称疾病 “ 三间 ” 分布)。. 第一节 疾病频率常用的测量指标 第二节 疾病的分布. 第一节 疾病频率常用的测量指标. 率和比的概念 发病指标 死亡指标. 某现象实际发生的例数 可能发生该现象的总人数. 率=. × k. k = 100% , 1000‰ , ……. 一、率和比的概念. 率( rate )

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疾病的分布

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(distribution of disease)




k

k100%1000

  • rate


100

  • ratio


100

  • proportion


()(incidence rate)

k=100%1000100000/


()

,

,

,


()(attack rate)

1

k=100% 1000


() (prevalence rate)

k=100%, 1000, 10000/100000/10


()

,


()


()(infection rate)

,,


()(secondary attack rateSAR)

,,


()(mortality rate )

k1000100000/10


  • (crude death rate)

  • (specific death rate)

    • ,


()(mortality rate )

,

,


()(fatality rate )


()n

,

()survival rate


PYLL

()

potential years of life lost, PYLL



(sporadic)


(outbreak )


(epidemic)

,




()

    • ,,


()

  • ,


()


()



() (rapid fluctuation)

,,


()(seasonally)


() (periodicity)

,


() (periodicity)


() (secular trend)

(secular change)

(),


() (secular trend)



()


()


()

    • (cross sectional analysis)

    • (birth cohort analysis)


()


()


()


()


()

1.,

2.

3.


()


  • (migrant epidemiology)



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