Considerations of Scale in Modeling Settlement Patterns Using GIS: An Iroquois Example. Kathleen M. Sydoriak Allen Chapter 6 in the CRM book. Iroquois Head Dress. Assembled by Nancy H. Spatial Scale History (literature).
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Considerations of Scale in Modeling Settlement Patterns Using GIS: An Iroquois Example
Kathleen M. Sydoriak Allen
Chapter 6 in the CRM book
Iroquois Head Dress
Assembled by Nancy H
- Broad regional level that could include 10,000 km2 plus
- Most useful for studying the broad effects of environmental variables on settlement and adaptive patterns
- Relationships between the environment and settlement location
- Specific locations may be less important –
– Areas that are larger than the site level – 5,500 km2
- Focus on more specific variables of importance – smaller focus produces more detailed results for comparative data – soil types, temperature regimes, vegetation, & proximity to different ethnic groups
- Often specific locations are less important
- Studies of approximately 100 km2
- Archaeological units start at the lowest level with behavior and are combined into larger units – random/non random patterns
- Archaeological scale (included in phenomenological)- the combination of space, time, and the behavioral grouping that is correlated to the archaeological unit of interest
- Important to understand the methods that archaeologists use for analysis and know what scales the archaeologist is using – look at the same level
- Knoerl’s work important – encourages identification of local as well as global and regional patterns in settlement location – important for all archy studies to look at holistic applications
Soil depletion villages moved every 15-20 years pattern of village sequences
“Archaeological scale is the combination of space, time, and behavior grouping that is correlated to the archaeological unit of interest.”
5 km grid cell GIS
Trend surface analysis identify regional, subregional, and local trends
Maize suitability map
38% overlap with archaeological sites
Classic Mixed Cropping: Three Sisters
-- an example of mixed (inter) cropping of maize,
beans, and curcurbits (squash and pumpkins).
These 3 plants, domesticated at different times,
were together a major component of Native Amer.
agriculture, historically documented by the Seneca
and Iroquois, starting sometime after 1000 AD.
All 3 seeds are planted in the same hole. The maize
provides a stalk for the beans to climb, beans are
nutrient-rich to offset that taken out by the maize,
and the squash grows low to the ground to keep
weeds down and water from evaporating from the
soil in the heat.(about.com, reworded some)