15 urban unrest and social control
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15 Urban Unrest and Social Control. Kleniewski & Thomas pp. 319-343. Theories Stressing Order. Tönnies, Durkheim & Simmel all thought social ties were weaker in urban than in rural communities. Lofland & Goffman emphasized that we “live with strangers”

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15 Urban Unrest and Social Control

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15 urban unrest and social control

15 Urban Unrest and Social Control

Kleniewski & Thomas

pp. 319-343


Theories stressing order

Theories Stressing Order

  • Tönnies, Durkheim & Simmel all thought social ties were weaker in urban than in rural communities.

  • Lofland & Goffman emphasized that we “live with strangers”

  • Chicago school ecologists found correlations between disorder (juvenile delinquency, crime, prostitution, drugs & alcohol) and poverty, high levels of immigrants & African Americans

  • But social disorganization fell out of use as Suttles, Gans, & others found slums to be highly organized with strong group ties.

  • Culture-of-poverty theories


Theories stressing conflict

Theories Stressing Conflict

  • Marx & Weber

    • Class, status and power struggles

    • Much crime is a result of struggles for resources that are scarce in poor urban areas

    • Wealth and income are associated with political power (votes and contributions to political candidates), so poor people may be left with social conflict as a means of political expression


Types of urban unrest

Types of Urban Unrest

  • Crime

  • Gang activity

  • Riots

  • Social movements

    • Castells

      • Collective consumption, or the movement to maintain high-quality, publicly supported goods and services, such as subsidized housing and parks, and to preserve historic areas.

      • Community, or the search for cultural identity that affirms ethnically or socially based ties within a neighborhood.

      • Citizen’s movements, or movements organized to gain political influence or self-management

  • Terrorism

    • Domestic (Ku Klux Klan, Black Liberation Army, Animal Liberation, Oklahoma City Federal Building 1995, Atlanta Olympics 1996)

    • International (World Trade Center 1993, 9/11/2001


Crime rates by city size 2008

Crime rates by city size: 2008

Group I (66 cities, 250,000 and over; population

Group II (168 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population

Group III (406 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population

Group IV (701 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population

Group V (1,535 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population

Group VI (6,199 cities under 10,000; population

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United

States, 2009, Table 31

http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/

table_31.html


Crime rates by city size 20081

Crime rates by city size: 2008

Group I (66 cities, 250,000 and over; population

Group II (168 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population

Group III (406 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population

Group IV (701 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population

Group V (1,535 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population

Group VI (6,199 cities under 10,000; population


15 urban unrest and social control

Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Online

http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/csv/t432009.csv


15 urban unrest and social control

Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Online

http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/csv/t432009.csv


15 urban unrest and social control

Uniform Crime Reports County Data GeoStats University of Virginia

http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/crime/


Causes of urban disruptions

Causes of Urban Disruptions

  • Crime rates are closely related to lack of adequate employment.

  • Reasons given for joining a gang

    • Identity, fun, friendship & prestige unavailable elsewhere

    • Rewards (alcohol, drugs, money)

    • Protection from harassment

  • Young men, without opportunity, poor schools, no prospects for jobs, little recreation, lots of time on hand.


Urban street gangs

Urban Street Gangs

Brenda C. Coughlin and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh. 2003. “The Urban Street Gang after 1970” Annual Review of Sociology, 29: 41-64

http://www.jstor.org/stable/30036960

LeBlanc, Adrian Nicole. 2003. Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, and Coming of Age in the Bronx. New York: Scribner. HV4046.N6 L43 2003


Approaches to reducing urban disruptions

Approaches to Reducing Urban Disruptions

  • Social Control Mechanisms

    • Informal social control

    • Formal social control

      • Laws, rules, regulations, penalties, criminal law & criminal justice system

        • Traditional policing

        • Community policing

    • Strategic Reinvestment of money and cultural capital into poor urban areas is the most promising solution to urban disruption


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