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Department of Electrical Engineering High-Speed Digital Systems Laboratory. HS DSL. !. Detection of Cellular Activity Within A Defined Space Undergraduate Project – Final Presentation Spring 2008. Doron BrotEyal Cimet Supervisor:Yossi Hipsh. The Main Objective.

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Department of Electrical Engineering High-Speed Digital Systems Laboratory

HS DSL

!

Detection of Cellular Activity Within A Defined SpaceUndergraduate Project – Final PresentationSpring 2008

Doron BrotEyal Cimet Supervisor:Yossi Hipsh


The Main Objective

  • Detection and Positioning of Cellular Phone Activity In a Defined Space Where Cellular Use is Unwanted

2


Main System Requirements

  • Detection and Positioning of Transmitting Cellular Phone

  • Desired Spatial Resolution & Accuracy:

  • Required Temporal Resolution:

  • Compatibility with all Cellular Providers

  • Detection Regardless of Phone Orientation – Reception of all Linear Polarizations

  • Ability to Handle Simultaneous Events

  • Ability to Distinguish Between Original Signal and Multi-path Reflection

3


The Defined Space


General Design Aspects

5


System Operation Process

Angle Measurement

Multi-path Filtering

Storage

Triangulation

Sampling

Origin Estimation

Filtering of Dummy Origins

Idle / Trigger

Positioning

Start


Preliminary Schematic

Circular-Polarized Antenna(s)

Front-End Overall Band Receiver

Power Sensor

Sampling Circuit

A/D

Positioning Algorithm

CPU

Memory

CLK

A/D

Display

Power Sensor

Circular-Polarized Omni-Antenna


Angle Measurement

  • Multi-beam Arrays – MBA:

    • Antennas Sensitive to Many Spatial Directions Simultaneously, Ideal for Angle Measurement

    • DifferentialAngle Measurement

    • Distance From Source Determines SignalStrength


Angle Measurement (Continued)

The Differential Measurements from two Consecutive Beams Yields an Estimate of the Angle of Incidence

Differential Zone


  • Origin of Signal is Estimated Based on Angle of Incidence with 2 MBA Antennas and Table Height:

Antenna 1

Antenna 2


Multi-path

  • Reflections Received Simultaneously Must Be Filtered Out

Antenna 1

Antenna 2


Possible Solution to Multi-path (1)

  • Use of RF Absorbing Material

Antenna 1

Antenna 2


Possible Solution to Multi-path (2)

  • Development of Filtering Algorithm for Multi-path Reflections

Antenna 1

Antenna 2


Coverage of the Defined Space:

Solution Overview

Area Split to Lower the Required Dynamic Range


Antenna Setup –

4 MBA’s, each with 6 directional beams

Each MBA is Comprised of 9 Narrow-Band Antennas

Solution Overview


Solution Overview

  • Cellular Spectrum

    • Detection of all Cellular Providers Demands Reception of all Cellular Frequencies in Spectrum


Solution Overview

  • Front-End Received Power


Detection Regardless of Orientation of Cellular Phone:

Circular-polarized Antennas Receive all Linear Polarizations

Layout of Circular-polarized Antenna

Two Linearly-polarized Antennas Coupled by a 90-Degree Hybrid:

Solution Overview

Circularly-Polarized Signal

Coupler


Final Design

Trigger

Omni-directional Antenna

A/D

12 dB Amp

BPF

Detector

Display

Digital Controller

(CPU)

Front-End

Vertical MBA

Horizontal MBA

90-Degree Hybrid

DCA

12 dB Amp

A/D

BPF

Detector

Band 1

A/D

Band 2

Frequency Multiplexer

Customized Filter to All 9 Bands

Band 3

Band 9


Component Survey

  • IPP-2036 90-Degree Coupler

    • Frequency Range: 800-2000 MHz

    • Maximum Input: 150 W

    • Insertion Loss: < 0.25 dB

  • Preferred Amplifier: ZJL-4G

    • Frequency Range: 20-4000 MHz

    • Typical Gain: 12.4 dB

    • IP3: 30.5 dB

    • Noise Figure: 5.5 dB

    • Maximum Input: 20 dBm


Component Survey

  • Power Detector – ZX47-40+

    • Dynamic Range: -40 to 15 dBm

    • Response Time:

    • Output Range: 0.5 – 2.1 VDC

  • Criteria in Choosing a Detector:

    • Dynamic Range Fits the System Requirements

    • Response Time Sufficiently Small compared to Typical Event Period


Component Survey

  • Sampling Hardware:

    • Sampler + A/D: Analog Devices AD-7999Resolution: 8 BitSampling Rate: 140 KSpSNo. of Channels: 4Reference: Peak to Peak

  • DCA: Digitally Controlled AttenuatorNormalizes the Input Power to the Dynamic Range of the Power Detector Based on the Measurement from the Omni-directional Antenna


A Simplified Experiment Demonstrating the Basic Principles of the System, Which Proves that the Suggested Implementation Works

Proof of Feasibility


Original Schematic

Trigger

Omni-directional Antenna

A/D

12 dB Amp

BPF

Detector

Display

Digital Controller

(CPU)

Vertical MBA

Horizontal MBA

Front-End

90-Degree Hybrid

DCA

12 dB Amp

A/D

BPF

Detector

Band 1

A/D

Band 2

Frequency Multiplexer

Band 3

Band 9


Number of Antennas –

System Strip-Down

Successful Detection in One Half of the Room Proves Feasibility


Number of Beams –

System Strip-Down

6 Original Beam Directions Simplified Down to 2


System Strip-Down


The Minimal System for Proof of Feasibility(1)

Horizontal MBA Antenna 1

Version Using HF Digitizing Scope

Beam 1

12 dB Amp

Beam 2

Scope/CPU:

12 dB Amp

CH 1

Horizontal MBA Antenna 2

CH 2

CH 3

Beam 1

12 dB Amp

CH 4

Agilent Infiniium DSO80204B

Beam 2

12 dB Amp


Feasibility Experiment

1 [m]

H=1.7 [m]

Pos 1

Pos 2

1.8 [m]

H=2.6 [m]

2.3 [m]

H=2 [m]


The Minimal System for Proof of Feasibility(2)

Horizontal MBA Antenna 1

Version Using Power Detectors

Beam 1

Power Detector

12 dB Amp

Power Detector

Beam 2

12 dB Amp

Scope

CH 1

Horizontal MBA Antenna 2

CH 2

CH 3

Beam 1

Power Detector

12 dB Amp

CH 4

Regular Low-Frequency Scope

Beam 2

Power Detector

12 dB Amp


Antenna Measurement System

Protractor

Rotating table

Antenna

Transmitting antenna

Pulse Generator

CH 1

CH 2

CH 3

Scope:

CH 4


Antenna Measurements

Spatial Response of MBA [ dB ]

Beam 1

Beam 2


Antenna Measurements

Spatial Response of MBA [ dB ]

Beam 1

Beam 2


Power Amplifier Measurement System

  • The 2 Outputs will be compared to measure gain


Amplifier Measurements

Amplifier Gain vs. Frequency [ dB ]


  • A Special Thanks to:

  • Yossi Hifsch Supervisor and Mentor

  • Eli Shoshan For all the Support

  • Bruriya Zochar For all the Help and Supplies

  • The Entire HS DSL Staff

Questions ?


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