Classification of living things this week we look at the groups in red
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Classification of Living Things: this week we look at the groups in red. Domain Prokarya— made of prokaryotic cells Kingdom Archea Kingdom Bacteria (eubacteria) Domain Eukarya— made of Eukaryotic cells “kingdom protista” protozoans— “animal” like protists algae— “plant like” protists

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Classification of Living Things: this week we look at the groups in red

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Classification of living things this week we look at the groups in red

Classification of Living Things: this week we look at the groups in red

  • Domain Prokarya— made of prokaryotic cells

    • Kingdom Archea

    • Kingdom Bacteria (eubacteria)

  • Domain Eukarya— made of Eukaryotic cells

    • “kingdom protista”

      • protozoans— “animal” like protists

      • algae— “plant like” protists

    • Plant Kingdom

    • Animal Kingdom

    • Fungi Kingdom


Terminology

Terminology

Photosynthetic Autotrophs:

  • use energy of sunlight and inorganic molecules to make their own food (energy molecules)

  • Photosynthesis

    • Uses photosynthetic pigments


Terminology1

Terminology

  • Heterotrophic:

    • Break down organic molecules for food/energy

      • eat other organisms (living or dead)

      • eat wastes of other organism


Terminology2

Terminology

  • Unicellular = the entire organisms (living thing) is made of just a single cell

  • Multicellular = the organism is made of multiple cells that are dependent on one another for the survival of the organism


Prokaryotes e g bacteria

Prokaryotes (e.g. Bacteria):

  • small and simple

  • very diverse

  • very successful

  • found everywhere

    • even extreme environments (boiling hot hotsprings, in ice, is super salty water….environments that would kill plants and animals)

  • they are abundant and widespread because simplicity makes them easily adaptable (because of high mutation rate and other forms of rapid genetic change; so new traits arise frequently)


Fundamental prokaryotic characteristics they are small and simple

Fundamental Prokaryotic Characteristics:they are small and simple

  • Very small (1/10th-1/1000th the size of a eukaryotic cell)

  • no nucleus (single circular piece of DNA is “unprotected”)

  • lacks all organelles except ribosomes and simple cytoskeleton

  • have cell wall (for shape and protection)

  • Unicellular

Typical eukaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cell

virus


Prokaryotic cell structure

Prokaryotic cell structure

Plasmid

“additional” DNA)


Additional prokaryotic features of note

Additional Prokaryotic Features of Note

  • Capable of rapid reproduction

    • binary fission

      • one cell copies its DNA and then divides to make a exact copy of itself…a clone)

      • from 1 to 1 billion (1,000,000,000) in 10 hours if they divide every 20 min

  • Can transfer DNA from one to another

    • conjugation

  • Can absorb DNA from environment

    • transformation

  • Can form resistant endospores that stay dormant until environment is good for growth again.

    • Can even survive clean rooms and outerspace

  • high mutation rate (adapt and spread quickly)


Binary fission how bacteria reproduce cells copy dna and then split into two

Binary Fission (how bacteria reproduce)Cells copy DNA and then split into two


Categorizing bacteria historically bacteria were categorized based on

Categorizing Bacteria:historically bacteria were categorized based on

Lab utilizes/focuses on these

  • Shape

    • Rods (bacilli)

    • Spheres (cocci)

    • Spirals (spirilli)

  • metabolism

  • heterotrophic v. autotrophic

  • aerobic v. anearobic

  • DNA/genetics

YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE THREE SHAPES BY THEIR OFFICIAL NAMES


Importance relevance of bacteria be able to give some examples

Importance/Relevance of bacteria:be able to give some examples

  • Environmentally:

    • decomposers

      • Break down dead things to make nutrient available for other organisms

    • Nitrogen fixers

      • only organisms that can take atmospheric N2 and make it available for use by other organisms

        • root nodules

        • crop rotation

    • create oxygen (photosynthetic varieties)

    • symbiotes with other organisms

      • e.g., gut fermentation


Classification of living things this week we look at the groups in red

NITROGEN CYCLE -- nitrogen passes from physical environment to producers (e.g., plants) to animals, to another animal (etc.) and returns to the physical env through waste and decomposition (of dead).


Importance relevance of bacteria be able to give some examples1

Importance/Relevance of bacteria:be able to give some examples

  • In human health

    • pathogens

    • “normal flora”

      • prevent infections & can influence our immune system

      • provide vitamins

      • “pro-biotics” (e.g., Activia…you know the commercials)

      • May alter immune function and be linked to autoimmune disorders and allergies (hygenien hypothesis & old-friends hypothesis)

      • May alter our fat deposition

    • original source of some antibiotics

    • Botox is made from bacterial toxin

    • produce flatulents and B.O.


Importance relevance of bacteria be able to give some examples2

Importance/Relevance of bacteria:be able to give some examples

  • Food/Nutrition

    Bacteria are used to chemical alter/change milk into things such as:

    • yogurt

    • kefer milk

    • cheeses

    • other fermented food items

      that are more resistant to spoiling

  • Some bacteria are pathogens to crop plants


Importance relevance of bacteria be able to give some examples3

Importance/Relevance of bacteria:be able to give some examples

  • Biotechnology:

    Genetically engineered bacteria:

    • production of drugs and/or hormones for human use

    • Are being developed to production of ethanol (a fuel)

    • Used to break up oil spills

      Other applications:

  • gene mining for new substances and enzymes

  • PCR/genetic analysis (e.g., DNA fingerprinting)

  • assembling nanostructures (nanotechnology)


Protists are

Protists are:

  • Eukayrotic

  • Can be unicellular or multicellular

  • Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic


The mostly heterotrophic protists

The “Mostly Heterotrophic” Protists

  • Include:

    • Paramecium

    • Amoeba

    • Euglena

    • Plasmosdium

  • They are:

    • Unicellular

    • Mostly heterotrophic

    • Have special structure for feeding and/or to make them mobile


Protozoans animal like protists

Protozoans:Animal-like protists

Feeding and movement structures:

  • cilia (ciliates)

  • Flagella (flagellates)

  • Psuedopods (ameobas)


Mostly heterotrophic protists

Mostly Heterotrophic Protists

  • You should know:

    • The protists covered in the lab manual

    • The structures each uses to feed and move with

    • Any details about these from the lab manual that I emphasized in lab

    • Also know the two organisms that plasmodium must pass through, the disease plasmodium causes, and what parts of the human body it infects.


Classification of living things this week we look at the groups in red

Euglena

Paramecium

amoeba


Algae plant like protists

Algae:plant-like protists

  • Photoautotrophic:

    • uses sunlight

  • Can be unicellular (e.g., diatoms) or multicellular

  • Traditionally classified by the color of photosynthetic pigment

    • the molecule that captures the energy of sunlight

      • Brown

      • Red

      • Green


Kelp structure

Kelp Structure


Algae

Algae

  • You should know:

  • The examples we looked at

  • The structure of the “giant bladder kelp” and the function of the holdfast, air cyst, and blade

  • Know which are multicellular and which are unicellular

  • Give some examples of how Algae are commerially important/relavent


Relevance of algae

Relevance of algae

  • Base of aquatic/marine food chain

  • O2 production

  • Food for humans, e.g., nori

  • Commercial uses

  • Agar gelatin (in scientific labs)

  • Potential source of biofuel

  • Fertilizer

  • Bioremediation (e.g.,uptake and remove phosphates)

  • Source of Dyes/coloring agents

  • Thickening and stabilizing agents in foods, soaps, and cosmetics

  • Clarifying beer (“irish moss”)

  • Component of “personal lubricants”


Spirogyra a green algae

Spirogyra (a green algae)


Diatoms a unicellular algae

Diatoms a unicellular algae


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