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Public Service Management. Mike Durke. Nature of Management. Management = making things happen It is about doing, not theory. It is about changing behaviour, developing people and working with them, reaching objectives and achieving results (Mullins; p190)

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Nature of Management

  • Management = making things happen

  • It is about doing, not theory.

  • It is about changing behaviour, developing people and working with them, reaching objectives and achieving results (Mullins; p190)

  • Drucker: “Management is a task. Management is a discipline. But management is also people.” Drucker (1979, p14) Management. Pan Books


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Science

Art

Magic

Politics

learnt knowledge and application

born with intuition and personality

no-one knows what’s going on

unwritten laws of life, good at winning the game

Nature of ManagementWatson TJ (1986) suggested management can be seen as an art or science and as magic or politics


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Management and Administration

  • Terms do overlap but management tends to be seen as a general descriptive label and administration as the implementation of systems and procedures instigated by management

  • “Management is viewed as applying to both private and public sector organisations; and administration is interpreted as part of the management process.” Mullins (2005; p194)


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Management

  • “Management is the process of achieving organisational objectives, within a changing environment , by balancing efficiency, effectiveness and equity, obtaining the most from limited resources, and working with and through other people.”

    Naylor J (2004) Management, 2nd edition. Financial Times Pitman Publishing; p7


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Management

  • A fundamental difficulty is that individual and organisational objectives differ

    Drummond (2000) Intro to Organisational Behaviour. OUP.

  • “Management is not homogenous. It takes place in different ways and at different levels of the organisation.”

    Mullins (2005; p196)


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Principles of Management

  • Remember Henri Fayol’s definition of management:

    “To forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”

  • 5 Elements: Plan, Organise, Command, Co-ordinate, Control


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Fayol’s Principles of Management

14 of them:

  • Division of work – more work same effort

  • Authority and responsibility – positions of authority come with responsibility

  • Discipline – order with penalties

  • Unity of command – one line manager, otherwise authority is undermined and discipline, order and stability threatened.

  • Unity of direction – one head, one plan for any group of activities with the same objective

  • Subordination of individual interest to general interest – the organisation comes first


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Fayol’s Principles of Management

7. Remuneration of personnel – keep employer and employee happy where possible.

8. Centralisation – always present. Question of proportion

9. Scalar chain – chair of superiors, line management system

10. Order – material order avoids loss (stock control, inventories), social order puts all staff in a specific place

11. Equity – fairness and equality at all levels

12. Stability of tenure of personnel – good support, efficient HRM

13. Initiative – source of strength for the organisation but must keep respect for authority and discipline

14. Esprit de corps – harmony and unity, morale, goodwill


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10 ‘New’ PrinciplesMoorcroft R (2000) Managing in the 21st Century. The British Journal of Administrative Management. January/ February. P 10


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Vroom RH and Deci EL (1992) Management and Motivation. Penguin

    Marked difference between 2 apparently matched employees – Why?

    Competence not enough to ensure high performance – Motivation is needed.


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Leadership is a relationship through which one person influences another

  • Interpersonal influence directed towards outer world goals (Mullins)

  • Leaders and managers are very different – in motivation and personal history and in the way they think and act.

    (Zaleznik 1977 Managers and Leaders … Harvard Bus Rev)


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Administrators – carry out policies. Not influential, but concerned with implementation

  • Managers – concerned primarily with efficiency and doing things the right way. They design systems. Seek changes when there is overwhelming evidence that things are not working

  • Leaders are primarily concerned with doing the right things. They clarify vision, purpose and direction. Creative and receptive to change.

    Doherty & Horne (2002; p206) Managing Public Services. Routledge


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The Nature of Leadership

7 Eras of Leadership

  • Personality – implies they are born not made

  • Influence – power to dominate others

  • Behavioural – patterns. Consideration (trust, respect and rapport) and structures.

  • Contingency – situational factors

  • Transactional – between leader and subordinates

  • Cultural – symbolic - performance of little consequence

  • Transformational – proactive, radical, new ideas


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