Becoming a world power
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Becoming a World Power. Chapter 23 Section 1. US Expansion. After expanding west the Pacific Coast, many American leaders believed we should join Europe in settling colonies abroad.

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Becoming a World Power

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Becoming a world power

Becoming a World Power

Chapter 23

Section 1


Us expansion

US Expansion

After expanding west the Pacific Coast, many American leaders believed we should join Europe in settling colonies abroad.

Imperialism: policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories


European expansion

European Expansion

Europe had been settling colonies for centuries, including Africa in the in the 19th century.

Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent


Colonial rule 1914

Colonial Rule 1914


Imperialism in asia

Imperialism in Asia

European countries competed with Japan in the Pacific.


American approval of imperialism

American Approval of Imperialism

Three main reasons drove approval for imperialism:

Economic Interest: Cheap raw materials, new markets for agriculture products.

Military Interests: Urged by foreign policy experts to go hand-in-hand with economic interests.

Cultural Superiority: Many Americans believed their culture, government, religion, and even race was superior.


William seward

William Seward

Strong backer of expansion under Lincoln and Johnson.

In 1867, arranges purchase of Alaska from Russia


Alaska

Alaska

Alaska was purchased for $7.2 million.

Although the deal is largely criticized, the territory is resource-rich and a great deal.


Arrival of christian missionaries early 1800s

Arrival of Christian Missionaries (Early-1800s)

Christian missionaries from US moved to Kingdom of Hawaii to convert local population.

Some of these missionaries started sugar plantations, giving birth to generations of wealthy plantation owners who dominated the economy.


Queen liliuokalani

Queen Liliuokalani

Became leader of Hawaii in 1891

Believed planter class had too much influence

Inspires a revolt against planters, but ends up giving up thrown in 1895


Planter retaliation

Planter Retaliation

US trade laws changed to favor sugar grown in American States.

American planters in Hawaii retaliated with US Marines in 1893, overthrowing the Queen and setting up their own government.

The new government requested to be annexed.


Annexation issue

Annexation Issue

Pearl Harbor was an important refueling station for American military and merchant ships.

Benjamin Harrison receives annexation request in 1893

Before the Senate could act, Grover Cleveland becomes president and withdraws the treaty.


Political cartoons

Political Cartoons


Present political cartoon

Present Political Cartoon


Spanish american war

Spanish-American War

Section 2


Rebellion against spain

Rebellion Against Spain

By the end of the 19th century, Spain is beginning to crumble

Spain had controlled most of Americas, including land that became part of US

In the 1890s, Spain still owned Philippine Islands, Cuba, and Puerto Rico


Jose marti

Jose Marti

Ongoing depression in 1895 increased Cuba’s anger over Spanish rule.

Jose Marti helps organize rebellion from New York and returns to Cuba

He is killed shortly after by Spanish troops


General valeriano the butcher weyler

General Valeriano “the Butcher” Weyler

Sent by Spain to crush rebellion

Forced many Cubans into Spanish guarded camps

Thousands died of starvation and disease in the camps


United states reaction

United States Reaction

American business leaders and citizens became concerned over the fighting and brutality

Two newspapers in particular stirred emotions:

- the World – owned by Joseph Pulitzer

- the New York Journal – owned by William Randolph Hearst

The papers were able to attract widespread attention by exaggerating Spanish brutality.


United states heads to war

United States Heads to War

President McKinley, being a veteran of the Civil War (1860’s) did not want to go to war.

However, public opinion forced McKinley to take action, demanding Spain stop its harsh treatment of Cubans

Spain eventually brought General Weyler home, but harsh treatment continued


U s s maine

U.S.S. Maine

January 1898, McKinley sends the Maine to Cuba

Riots broke out in Havana, Cuba so McKinley sends Maine to protect US citizens.

The following month (February 1898), the Maine exploded in Havana’s harbor

260 sailors are killed

Cause is unknown, but most historians believe it was an accident


Spanish american war begins

Spanish-American War Begins

McKinley signed congressional resolution (April 20, 1898).

Resolution called for Cuban independence and withdrawal of Spanish troops

Spain is given 3 days to comply


War in the philippines

War in the Philippines

First major battle takes place in a Spanish colony in the Philippine islands

Many Filipinos had also revolted against Spanish rule in the 1890s.

The revolt attracted the attention of Theodore Roosevelt (at this time, he is assistant secretary of navy).

He puts Commodore George Dewey on alert in Hong Kong


War in the philippines begins

War in the Philippines Begins

Spanish-American War begins and Dewey sets out for Manila (capital of Philippines).

Battle of Manila begins morning of May 1, 1898

By noon, Dewey’s forces had destroyed Spanish fleet and killed or wounded 380 Spanish sailors

No Americans were killed.

With help from Filipino rebels, US troops take control of Manila in August


The caribbean war

The Caribbean War

Within four months, American forces go from 28,000 to 280,000 (including Theodore Roosevelt)

Roosevelt organizes First United States Volunteer Cavalry nicknamed Rough Riders.


Rough riders

Rough Riders

Gather with 16,000 other soldiers in Tampa, Florida

Nearly a quarter are African-American

Set out for Santiago, a stronghold in southern Cuba

As they arrive in Cuba, many soldiers come down with tropical diseases.


Battle of san juan hill

Battle of San Juan Hill

Key to taking control of Santiago

Begin attack on July 1

African-American soldiers begin driving Spanish back as the Rough Riders join and help capture the hill.


Mapping the spanish american war

Mapping the Spanish-American War


Final days

Final Days

American ships destroy Spain’s fleet as they try to escape Santiago Harbor.

City surrenders on July 17

A week later US forces take Puerto Rico

Spain signs truce on August 12th, 1898


Spanish american war pics

Spanish-American War Pics


Timeline of the spanish american war

Timeline of the Spanish-American War


Results of war

Results of War

US demands Spain give up other colonies: Puerto Rico, island of Guam, and the Philippines.

Final treaty signed in Paris (December 1898)

Philippines becomes an American colony, infuriating many Filipinos who expected independence


Emilio aguinaldo

Emilio Aguinaldo

Led a revolt against American troops

American troops finally calm revolt in 1902


Platt amendment

Platt Amendment

US is reluctant to grant Cuba complete independence

Cuba had to adopt Platt Amendment to its constitution

Amendment allowed US to intervene in Cuban affairs anytime there was a threat to “life, property, and individual freedom.”

Cuba must also allow US naval base at Guantanamo Bay


Puerto rico

Puerto Rico

Becomes American territory

US sets up government and appoints officials

US finally grants Puerto Rico self-governing rights and grants Puerto Ricans US citizenship in 1917


Anti imperialist league

Anti-Imperialist League

US treatment of Spain’s former colonies disappoints many Americans, including Carnegie, Jane Addams, and writer Mark Twain

These well known Americans, along with others, join Anti-Imperialist League.

Held belief that America should allow others to govern themselves


Luis munoz rivera

Luis Munoz Rivera

Devoted life to obtaining self-government for Puerto Rico

Fought with both Spain and US over governing rights


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