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1. Introduction to Sociology Kathy Edwards
2. Cultural Lag When some parts of culture change, and other parts do not. Material culture often changes first.
3. Cultural Lag Technology, science, and economics are the engines that drive our society, non material culture or our ideas lag behind.
4. Cultural Lag Example: The public school system, most are on a 9 month term, this is from the early 19th century, and has not caught up with new patterns of work, and living.
5. Technological Determinism The view that technology is the new determinate of our culture, that technology has life of its own, forcing humans to follow its lead.
6. Cultural diffusion/assimilation Groups that adapt part of other peoples way of life, remaining open to changes. This occurs via increased contact with others: travel & communication
7. Cultural Leveling The process by which cultures become similar, through industrialization, technology, capitalism
8. Cultural leveling Western culture: Radio shack, McDonalds, Disney, Coca Cola, rock music, clothes
The incorporation of Western culture into the world via globalization
Eventually, everyplace starts to look like every other place.
9. Values Values determine for us what is desirable in our life;
If we learn other peoples values we learn about other people;
Values underlie our preferences, our choices, indicate what we deem as worthwhile in our society.
10. Values Values are general rules for behavior and perceptions we hold in a society.
Norms develop out of our values.
Norms are the expectations, rules of particular behaviors which come out of our everyday life.
11. Values Norms are particular ways that we act, and prescribed behavior and rules governing our everyday life.
With Norms come sanctions, rewards, punishments - you receive approval or disapproval for upholding or violating norms.
12. Norms Positive and negative sanctions, rewards, or punishments occur that are social consequences if we adhere or violate a norm.
Rewards are smiles, claps, hugs, high 5, prize, trophy, money; negative sanctions or punishments are frowns, stares, fists, harsh wordsnorms become laws!
13. Norms Regulation of appearance and behavior
Define and maintain boundaries
Norms support cultural values.
Desirable behavior is attached to an actual expectation with social consequences.
14. Norms There are norms that govern us in everyday life.
How do you act at Church? A ballgame? Greeting someone? A rock concert?
15. Types of Norms Folkways: These are norms that are not strictly enforced, we expect people to comply, but if they dont we dont make a big deal about it. Situational: Walking on one side of the sidewalk, going up and down stairs, elevator behavior
Customs, habits, commonly accepted practices
16. Types of Norms Folkways: Usually involve unimportant matters: table manners, accepting your place in line rather than cutting ahead, wearing appropriate clothing.
Few restrictions, and mild sanctions.
17. Types of Norms Mores: Means manners in French. Mores are norms that are essential to American Values, close to legalistic.
Attitudes from the past, habituated, very little deviation allowed
Duties, obligations, common to cultural morality
18. Types of Norms Mores: The fundamental ideas about what is right/wrong, virtuous and sinful.
Important because they involve moral vision based on social cohesion, continuity, and community in human life.
Mores eventually become LAWS.
Part of social life, not changing.
19. Mores Strict enforcement, and insistence on conformity, we learn through socialization via our institutions in society.
Examples: prescribed gender roles; Americans eat beef, not horse, dog, cat; you do not expose your genitals in public
20. Mores Part of moral behavior which includes the following:
not in self interest
command/obligation to do right
21. Taboo A taboo is a norm so strongly ingrained that to violate it creates disgust, revulsion, horror - the thought of it makes people sick:
Eating human flesh - cannibalism
Incest - having sex with relatives
Pedophilia - adults having sex with children
22. Law Laws are norms with strict and formal sanctions, punishments - to violate a law is to violate society itself.
Codified, and enforcement is reserved for those in positions of authority.
Formal legal codes are necessary to manage relationships in interdependent, self interested, contractual societies.
23. Laws Criminal law has to do with formal, clear definitions, specialization, and enforcement. Prohibits behaviors such as murder, fraud, desecrating sacred objects or places.
Civil law has to do with social relations, disputes, compensation, loss through negligence - example family law.
24. Laws All societies have some form of law the prohibit certain behaviors.
Law comes from mores.
Most societies have similar laws and mores, but the rule of sociology is:
One cultures mores are another groups folkways, and another groups laws!
(cultural and ethical relativism)