Post harvest practices in lao pdr
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Post Harvest Practices in Lao PDR. Presentation Prepared for the Training Course on “Post Harvest Practices” 28 March-8 April 2011 Mekong Institute, Khon Kaen, Thailand By Lao Participants. Geographical Location. China (505 km in the north). Vietnam (2,069 km in the east). Myanmar

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Post Harvest Practices in Lao PDR

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Post harvest practices in lao pdr

Post Harvest Practicesin Lao PDR

Presentation Prepared for theTraining Course on

“Post Harvest Practices” 28 March-8 April 2011

Mekong Institute, Khon Kaen, Thailand

By Lao Participants


Post harvest practices in lao pdr

Geographical Location

China

(505 km in the north)

Vietnam

(2,069 km in the east)

Myanmar

(236 km in the north west)

Cambodia

(435 km in the south)

Thailand

(1,835 km in the west)

DLF profile and Developement


General info

Population: 6,6 million

Area: 236,800 Km2

Population density: 27 per Km2

49 Ethnic minority groups

Land-locked country

2/3 of country mountainous; 1/3 plain and plateau

Rivers: Mekong and over 10 tributaries

Forest cover: 54%

Rainfall: 1700-2200 mm

General Info


Key economic factors

80% of the Lao population practice farming mostly in rural areas

In 2009, economic growth was 7.9%:

agriculture = 44.3% of GDP;

industry = 30%

manufacturing & services = 25.7%;

Main Export: Gold, copper, electricity, wood products.

Export agricultural produces: coffee, corn, rice and ….vegetables/fruits.

Key Economic Factors


Statistic of rice some selected major crops production in lao pdr

Statistic of Rice & some selected major crops production in Lao PDR


The dual rural economy

The Dual Rural Economy

The Lowlands

  • Transformation Started

  • Commercial factor and product markets operating

  • Beginning of farming systems diversification

The Uplands

  • Subsistence rural economy

  • Limited markets

  • Rural poverty

  • Traditional farming systems


Rice in the plain areas

Rice in the plain areas


Corn in north west

CORN in North West


Coffee in boloven plateau

Coffee in Boloven Plateau


Vegetables and fruits highlands boloven plateau

Vegetables and Fruits Highlands/ Boloven Plateau


Post harvest traditional practices

POST HARVEST TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

FOR MAIN CROPS (Rice, corn, coffee and vegetables)


Post harvest traditional practices1

POST HARVEST TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

FOR RICE

Post harvest loss: about 20%


Harvest by hand

Harvest by hand


Threshing

Threshing


Paddy drying and grading

Paddy drying and grading


Storage at farm level

Storage at farm level


Ricemill

Ricemill


Post harvest traditional practices2

POST HARVEST TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

FOR FEED CORN

Post harvest loss: ?


Corn seedling equipment

Corn Seedling Equipment


Corn field

Corn Field


Peeling milling

Peeling/Milling


Corn drying

Corn Drying


Corn for sale

Corn for sale


Post harvest traditional practices3

POST HARVEST TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

FOR COFFEE

Post harvest loss: ?


Coffee saplings

Coffee saplings


Arabica cherries

Arabica Cherries


Semi wet beans processing

Semi-wet beans processing


Drying of coffee beans

Drying of coffee beans


Drying of coffee beans1

Drying of coffee beans


Post harvest traditional practices4

POST HARVEST TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

FOR OKRA

Post harvest loss: ?


Okra plantation

Okra plantation


Okra fruits

Okra Fruits


Okra packaging facility

Okra Packaging Facility


Post harvest traditional practices5

POST HARVEST TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

CASE OF CABBAGE FROM CHAMPASSACK PROVINCE


Farmer group applications cabbages in champasak

Farmer Group Applications: Cabbages in Champasak

Vang Tao Market

  • Suppliers:

  • 13 villages:

    2 large farmer groups;

    about 150 families

  • Products:

    Cabbage & Chinese

    Cabbage

  • Production inputs:

    Seed, fertilizer

  • Exporters: local

    Markets:

  • Ubon, Thailand

  • Vientiane

Agricultural Primary Market

Pakxong District

Key factors:

  • Long term relationships => trust

  • Credit in kind <=> commodities for trading

  • District initiatives:

    • organize & register farmer groups

    • arrange credit

    • organize primary market


Use of agricultural machinery

USE OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY


Cultivation practices

CULTIVATION PRACTICES


Transport from plantation to point of collection

Transport from plantation to point of collection


Operations at point of collection

Operations at point of collection


From point of collection to domestic market

From point of collection to domestic market


From point of collection to border market

From point of collection to border market


Border market operation unloading packaging weighing

Border market operation: unloading/packaging/weighing


Border market operation loading to thai trucks

Border market operation: loading to Thai trucks


Thai trucks heading to thai markets

Thai trucks heading to Thai markets


And to the table of mi

And to the table of MI


Similar operations for banana

Similar operations for Banana


Similar operations for

Similar operations for


The way ahead

The way ahead

  • Improvement of legal framework

  • Improvement of logistics

  • Clean/organic agriculture

  • Niche market


Improved logistics cool storage container

Improved logistics: cool storage/container


Organic vegetable market

Organic vegetable market


Post harvest loss estimates of tomato in the supply chain in lao pdr

Post harvest loss estimates of tomato in the supply chain in Lao PDR


Post harvest loss estimates of cucumber in the supply chain in lao pdr

Post harvest loss estimates of cucumber in the supply chain in Lao PDR


Post harvest loss estimates of chili in the supply chain in lao pdr

Post harvest loss estimates of chili in the supply chain in Lao PDR


Main reason of post harvest loss at farm level

Main reason of post harvest loss at farm level

  • Hot weather during harvest

  • Humid weather during harvest

  • Diseases

  • Damage during harvest

  • Damages during transport

  • Poor quality of variety

  • Other reason of spoilage


Main reason of post harvest loss at trader and retailer levels in lao pdr

Main reason of post harvest loss at trader and retailer levels in Lao PDR

  • Hot weather during harvest

  • Humid weather during harvest

  • Diseases

  • Damage during harvest

  • Poor packaging

  • Damages during transport

  • High temperature in storage facility

  • High humidity in storage facility

  • Can not sell all vegetables

  • Poor quality of purchased vegetables


Smallholder farmer key marketing constraints

Smallholder farmer key marketing constraints

Farmers’ perspective:

  • Insufficient capacity in production planning (quality & quantity) to meet market demand;

  • Insufficient understanding of markets;

  • Limited technical knowledge of post-harvest handling and marketing techniques;

  • Difficulty in accessing financing for market-oriented farm-based activities.

  • Limited access to land.

  • Labor is becoming scare due to industry competition for workers (especially garment industry).

    Government’s perspective:

  • Farmers do not adopt modern production techniques;

  • Farmers do not diversify cropping patterns;

  • Extension technicians do not meet technical needs of farmers’ organizations;

  • Foreign agribusiness investors lack experience working with Lao farmers;

  • No examples of public-private sector partnerships exist as a model for government and agribusiness;

  • Public sector lacks a regulatory framework to administer farmer groups;

  • The private sector treats farmers unfairly.

Agribusiness perspective:

  • Farmers provide only poor quality and insufficient quantities of raw materials;

  • Farmer production and marketing groups are disorganized, poorly administered and regulated, and lack the ability to respond to agribusiness needs;

  • Farmers refuse to undertake post-harvest handling at the farm level;

  • The government should organize farmer production and marketing groups; and,

  • Government should arrange production credit for farmer groups.


Conclusion key challenges for improvement of post harvest practices in lao pdr

Conclusion: key challenges for improvement of post harvest practices in Lao PDR

  • Lack of understanding from both farmers and extension staff on the importance of post harvest practices.

  • Farmers have low access to information, technology (on farm process) and finance.

  • Lack of appropriate logistics and facilities for post harvest operations.

  • Lack of standards and norms for agriculture produces.

  • Lack of knowledge of market requirements


Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention


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