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Estonia. Size: 45 227 km² (size of Netherlands) Population: 1,4 million Neighbours: Russia, Latvia, via Baltic Sea - Finland and Sweden History: independent country since 1991 (after “singing revolution”). Estonia. Type of state: Parliamentary democracy

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Estonia
Estonia

  • Size: 45 227 km² (size of Netherlands)

  • Population: 1,4 million

  • Neighbours: Russia, Latvia, via Baltic Sea - Finland and Sweden

  • History: independent country since 1991 (after “singing revolution”)


Estonia1
Estonia

  • Type of state: Parliamentary democracy

  • President: Arnold Rüütel since 2001

  • Government: coalition of centre right (Res Publica), liberal centre (Government Reform Party) and left wind rural party (People’s Union)

  • Legislature: Single chamber Parliament of 101 members, last election March 2003


Estonia2
Estonia

Relations with EU :

  • 1995 – Europe Agreement (Association Agreement)

  • 16 September 2003 – Accession referendum – 66,84 % in favour (turnout 64%)


Estonia3
Estonia

Specific features:

- most advanced applicant country regarding information technology,

- 20% of the population is either stateless or possess different citizenship than Estonian.

- Ethnic status is very mixed – only 67,9% of Estonians, 25,6% of Russians and the rest consists of various others (Finns, Belorussians, Ukrainians).


Slovenia
Slovenia

  • Size: 20 000 km² (like Wales or Israel)

  • Population: 2 million

  • Neighbours: Austria, Italy, Croatia, Hungary

  • History: Independence from Yugoslavia since June 1991 (after ten-day war with Yugoslav People’s Army)


Slovenia1
Slovenia

  • Type of state: Parliamentary democracy

  • President: Janez Dmovšek since 2002

  • Government: Liberal Democrats (Prime Minister Anton Rop)

  • Legislature: 90-member State Assembly and 40-member State Council


Slovenia2
Slovenia

Relations with EU:

  • 1993 – Co-operation Agreement

  • 1996 – Association Agreement

  • 23rd of March 2003 –

    Referendum on EU Accession

    90 % in favour, (turnout 60%)


Slovenia3
Slovenia

Specific features:

  • the only EU candidate country from former Yugoslavia

  • GDP per capita higher than Greece, close to Portugal (16,990 Є)

  • lower unemployment than France or Germany

  • tourism is a major industry


Hungary
Hungary

  • Size: 93,036 km²

  • Population: 10,2 million

  • Neighbours: Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Former Yugoslavia, Croatia, Slovenia

  • History: 1956 – revolution against communist regime ; 1990 – first free parliamentary elections, 1991 – leave of Soviet soldiers


Hungary1
Hungary

  • Type of state: Republic, Parliamentary democracy

  • President: Ferenc Madl, since August 2000

  • Government: left-liberal coalition of the Hungarian Socialist Party and the Alliance of Free Democrats

  • Legislature: unicameral system – Parliament of 386 members


Hungary2
Hungary

Relations with EU:

  • 1991 – Association Agreement with EC

  • 12th April 2003 – referendum on accession – 83,76% in favour (turnout 45,6%)


Hungary3
Hungary

Specific features:

  • 13 officially recognised minorities (German, Gypsies, Croats, Slovacs, Romanians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Polish, Armenian, Rutherns, Serbs, Ukrainian)

  • one of the lowest unemployment rate in candidate countries (5,8%)


Hungary4
Hungary

Position on Constitution

  • Every Member State should have one Commissioner

  • The rotating presidency principle of the Council should be maintained

  • Enhanced cooperation allowed if more than half of Member States involved

  • A paragraph on the rights of national and ethnic minorities should be included in the Preamble of Constitution or in the Charter of Human Rights


Poland
Poland

  • Size: 312 685 km²

  • Population: 38,654 million(similar to Spain)

  • Neighbours: Germany, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Lithuania

  • History: 1989 – first free elections after 10 year Solidarity movement, 1997 new Constitution


Poland1
Poland

  • Type of state: Parliamentary democracy

  • President: Aleksander Kwaśniewski, (for second time)

  • Government: coalition of Social Democrats with Labour Union and People’s Social Party

  • Legislature: bicameral Parliament – Sejm of 460 members and Senat of 100 members


Poland2
Poland

Relations with EU:

  • 1989 – Co-operation Agreement

  • 1991 – Association Agreement

  • 7th of June 2003 – referendum on Accession – 57% in favour (54% turnout)


Poland3
Poland

Specific features:

  • the biggest candidate country,

  • the longest outside border

  • the biggest population,

  • big agriculture – but not very efficient

  • 70% economic activities from developing private sector


Poland4
Poland

Position on Constitution:

  • Refusal to change the Nice voting system in the Council

  • one commissioner per country

  • reference to Christian traditions in the preamble requested


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