The crusades
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The Crusades. Success, Failure, Success. Crusades of the 11 th and 12 th. Strengthened the papal claim to leadership of Christian society The Christian warrior class as a new nobility New prestige in the knightly class

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The crusades

The Crusades

Success, Failure, Success

Crusades of the 11 th and 12 th
Crusades of the 11th and 12th

  • Strengthened the papal claim to leadership of Christian society

  • The Christian warrior class as a new nobility

    • New prestige in the knightly class

  • According to Perry they represent an outpouring of Christian Zeal and an attempt by the papacy to regain preeminence

  • These were also a sign of vitality, strength, and self confidence in western Europe.

Leading up to the crusades
Leading up to the Crusades

  • Pilgrimages to the holy land

  • Mid 11th Seljuk Turks, from central Asia took control over most of middle east

  • 1085 they captured Jerusalem

  • Byzantium appealed for help from the west

  • The West had been fairly successful prior to this

    • In 11th Pisa and Genoa had driven Muslims out of Sardinia; then they attacked Tunis wiping out the base for Muslim pirates and forcing the emir to free Christian captives and to trade with Italy; in 1091 Normans drove them out of Sicily and took southern Italy from Byzantium

Motives for the crusaders
Motives for the Crusaders

  • Spiritual reasons

    • Christian Obligation

    • Plenary Indulgences

  • Personal Reasons

    • Younger sons had a chance to gain territory

    • There was much wealth to be gained

    • Personal Glory

    • Dreams of Adventure

  • Papal Reasons

    • Might extend his influence over the east which was lost after the Schism of 1054

1 st crusade 1096 1099
1st Crusade 1096-1099

  • 1091 Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus I requested aid from Pope Urban II

    • Protection from the Turks

    • Protection for pilgrims

  • 1095 – Council of Clermont – Urban speaks to crowds about fighting the Turks, claiming that “God wills it!”

  • Hundreds sign up to fight under the leadership of the Church

  • Peter the Hermit’s Army of peasants

  • The German Peasant army

    • Beat up by the Magyars and then again by the Turks before making it


  • A real army of Knights finally assembled at Constantinople in 1097

  • Crusaders first took Antioch and reached Jerusalem in the spring of 1099

  • Godfrey of Bouillon broke through the city walls

  • Crusaders were merciless and contemporary accounts say they were wading through blood up to their knees

  • Thousands of Moslems and Jews were killed

The next century
The Next Century

  • As the Western Nobles sapped up the luxuries of their Eastern conquests the Muslims organized and called for a jihad

  • Also during this time, church ordained military orders came into existence in the East

Military orders
Military Orders

  • 1118, a group of knights stationed in Jerusalem organized the Knights of the Temple or the Knights Templar

    • Headquartered on the site of Solomon’s Temple

  • Started off as a group to protect the holy lands

  • Eventually lost sense of original purpose, became extremely wealthy and served as a large-scale banking organization

  • A second order – the Knights of St John, later known as the hospitalers – founded in 1083 at the Benedictine abbey of Amalfi

  • 3rd order – the Knights of St Mary of the Teutons, or Teutonic Knights – organized in 1127 by the crusaders from Germany

2 nd crusade 1147 1149
2nd Crusade – 1147-1149

  • Muslims set out to drive the crusaders back into the sea and recaptured Edessa in 1144

  • Pope Eugenius III ordered Bernard of Clairvaux to call a crusade

    • Spoke to a large group of knights: “forgiveness of sins and absolution we grant…so that he who has devoutly undertaken so holy a journey and finished it or died there shall obtain absolution for all his sins”

    • King Louis VII of France and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II responded to the call

  • Much of the two armies (traveling separately) was lost by the time they arrived and the siege failed; Edessa remained in Moslem control

3 rd crusade 1189 1192
3rd Crusade – 1189-1192

  • The gifted leader Saladin conquered Iraq, Syria and Egypt so he surrounded the crusaders on 3 sides

  • In 1187 he invaded and recaptured Jerusalem, defeated the crusaders and captured King Guy of Lusignon but permitted no needless slaughter of Christians

  • Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire, Phillip Augustus of France, and Richard the Lionhearted of England took on the crusade

    • Frederick drowned in a river and his army went home

    • Phillip and Richard got into a beef in Sicily and again in Palestine and Philip went home

    • Richard fought but lost and made an arrangement with Saladin that Christians could still visit the Holy Land

      • On his way home, he was taken prisoner by Leopold of Austria, whom he had insulted during the war

      • England had to pay a ransom but John took advantage

4 th crusade 1202 1204
4th Crusade – 1202-1204

  • Pope Innocent III called a new crusade

  • 10 thousand French knights met in Venice

  • Crusaders didn’t enough money to pay for the voyage

  • The Doge offered to pay if the crusaders would capture Zara, a trade rival in the Adriatic

    • The crusaders did so but were in trouble with the Pope because Zara was a Catholic city so the Pope excommunicated them…for a little while

    • Next a deal was cut with Alexius IV who offered big money for the crusaders to restore his throne in Constantinople

      • So did while others went to Syria

      • It fell for the first time ever- major disaster for all involved- the crusaders massacred people and looted and the moral authority of the Church suffered

      • Latin Kingdom only lasted until 1261 when Byzantine empire got it back only to fall to Ottoman Turks in 1453

      • This embittered relationship between east and west churches

Children s crusades
Children’s Crusades

  • Children’s crusade of 1212 stirred by shepherd boy Stephen of Cloyes who claimed that Christ was guiding him

    • Thousands of French peasant kids with priests marched to the Mediterranean expecting it to part

    • When it didn’t they got on ships supplied by William the Pig and Hugo the Iron

    • 2 Ships were lost at sea and 5 were captured by Muslim pirates who worked out a deal with William and Hugo and the kids were sold into slavery in North Africa and never heard from again

    • Another Children’s crusade originated in Germany and thousands of kids died

Later crusades
Later Crusades

  • By 1217 Italian cities were fighting for trade routes

  • 5th crusade- invasion of Egypt did nothing and they all came home

  • 6th crusade- Emperor Frederick II negotiated without fighting to gain some control in the Holy Lands

  • 7th Crusade- 25 year old King of France Louis IX took up the cause but was not supported by fellow monarchs

    • He was taken captive and ransomed by the Moslems in 1254

    • He tried again in 1270 but died

  • In the End, the holy land remained in Moslem control


  • May have contributed to the decline of feudalism because many lords died and many squandered their wealth to finance these expeditions

  • Introduced thousands of Europeans to the larger world

  • Increased trade between Europe and the eastern Mediterranean

    • But this had already begun with the Italian city-states

  • Awestruck by luxuries and advanced civilizations

    • But most of the intellectual contact was made in Spain and Italy

  • Increased the pace of economic changes – new systems of money, credit, and banking practiced were introduced

  • May have contributed to the growth of shipping