Chapter 10
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 47

Chapter 10 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 156 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 10. Chemical Quantities. Before We Begin…. I can write numbers in scientific notation. I can write numbers in standard notation. I can multiply numbers written in scientific notation. I can divide numbers written in scientific notation. Before We Begin….

Download Presentation

Chapter 10

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Chemical Quantities


Before we begin

Before We Begin…

  • I can write numbers in scientific notation.

  • I can write numbers in standard notation.

  • I can multiply numbers written in scientific notation.

  • I can divide numbers written in scientific notation.


Before we begin1

Before We Begin…

  • We need to review some scientific notation.

  • Scientific notation is a way of writing very large and very small numbers.


How to write numbers in scientific notation

How to Write Numbers in Scientific Notation

  • Always written as a coefficient multiplied by 10 raised to a power.

3.5 x 1034

coefficient

power


Examples

Examples:

  • Write the following in scientific notation:

    • 234560000

    • 0.00056974

    • 8524000000

    • 0.000000044258


How to multiply in scientific notation

How to Multiply in Scientific Notation

  • To multiply numbers written in scientific notation you multiply the coefficients and add the powers.

(2.35x1014) x (3.25x10-23)

Multiply

Add

(2.35x3.25) x 1014+-23


How to multiply in scientific notation1

How to Multiply in Scientific Notation

  • To multiply numbers written in scientific notation you multiply the coefficients and add the powers.

(2.35x1014) x (3.25x10-23)

Multiply

Add

Answer = 7.64x10-9


Examples1

Examples:

  • Multiply the following numbers:

    • (1.23x104) x (4.56x107)

    • (7.89x10-1) x (1.23x1010)

    • (4.56x107) x (7.89x10-10)

    • (1.23x10-11) x (4.56x10-23)


How to divide in scientific notation

How to Divide in Scientific Notation

  • To divide numbers written in scientific notation you divide the coefficients and subtract the powers.

(2.35x1014) ÷ (3.25x10-23)

Divide

Subtract


How to divide in scientific notation1

How to Divide in Scientific Notation

  • To divide numbers written in scientific notation you divide the coefficients and subtract the powers.

(2.35x1014) ÷ (3.25x10-23)

Divide

Subtract

Answer =0.72x1037


Examples2

Examples:

  • Divide the following numbers:

    • (1.23x104) ÷ (4.56x107)

    • (7.89x10-1) ÷ (1.23x1010)

    • (4.56x107) ÷ (7.89x10-10)

    • (1.23x10-11) ÷ (4.56x10-23)


Section 1

Section 1

The Mole: A Measurement of Matter


Section 1 learning targets

Section 1 Learning Targets

10.1.1 – I can describe methods of measuring the amount of something.

10.1.2 – I can define Avogadro’s number as it relates to a mole of a substance.

10.1.3 – I can distinguish between the atomic mass of an element and its molar mass.

10.1.4 – I can describe how the mass of a mole of a compound is calculated.


Measuring matter

Measuring Matter

  • You often measure the amount of something by one of three different methods – by count, by mass, and by volume.


Example

Example:

  • If 0.20 bushel is 1 dozen apples and a dozen apples has a mass of 2.0kg, what is the mass of 0.50 bushel of apples?


What is a mole

What Is a Mole?

  • Mole (mol) – 6.02x1023 representative particles of that substance (SI unit for measuring the amount of something).

  • Avogadro’s number - 6.02x1023 named after Amadeo Avogadro diQuarenga (1776-1856)


Chapter 10

  • A mole of any substance contains Avogadro’s number of representative particles, or 6.02x1023 representative particles.


Converting number of particles to moles

Converting Number of Particles to Moles

  • You can use Avogadro’s number as a conversion factor.


Example1

Example:

  • How many moles is 2.80x1024 atoms of silicon?


Converting moles to number of particles

Converting Moles to Number of Particles

  • The reverse also works.


Example2

Example:

  • How many molecules are in 5.6 moles of NO2?


The mass of a mole of an element

The Mass of a Mole of an Element

  • The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the mass of a mole of the element.

  • Molar mass – the mass of a mole of an element.

  • Find the element on the periodic table and the mass that’s listed is the mass of one mole.


The mass of a mole of a compound

The Mass of a Mole of a Compound

  • To calculate the molar mass of a compound, find the number of grams of each element in one mole of the compound.

  • Then add the masses of the elements in the compound.


Example3

Example:

  • What is the mass of 1.00 mol of sodium hydrogen carbonate?


Section 2

Section 2

Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships


Section 2 learning targets

Section 2 – Learning Targets

10.2.1 – I can describe how to convert the mass of a substance to the number of moles of a substance, and moles to mass.

10.2.2 – I can identify the volume of a quantity of gas at STP.


The mole mass relationship

The Mole-Mass Relationship

  • Use the molar mass of an element or compound to convert between the mass of a substance and the moles of a substance.


Example4

Example:

  • Find the mass, in grams, of 4.52x10-3mol of C20H42.


Chapter 10

  • The reverse is also true.


Example5

Example:

  • Calculate the number of moles in 75.0g of dinitrogen trioxide.


The mole volume relationship

The Mole-Volume Relationship

  • Avogadro’s hypothesis – states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.


Chapter 10

  • Standard temperature and pressure (STP) – means a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of 101.3kPa or 1 atmosphere (atm).


Chapter 10

  • At STP, 1 mole or 6.02x1023 representative particles, of any gas occupies a volume of 22.4L

  • Molar volume – the 22.4L of a gas.


Calculating volume at stp

Calculating Volume at STP

  • 22.4L = 1 mol at STP provides a nice conversion factor.


Example6

Example:

  • What is the volume of 3.70 mole N2 at STP?


Example7

Example

  • How many moles are in 102 L of carbon dioxide, CO2?


Calculating molar mass from density

Calculating Molar Mass from Density

  • Different gases have different densities and is usually measured in g/L so we can calculate different things using density as a conversion factor.


Example8

Example:

  • A gaseous compound composed of sulfur and oxygen, which is linked to the formation of acid rain, has a density of 3.58 g/L at STP. What is the molar mass of this gas?


The mole road map

The Mole Road Map

  • A helpful tool to figure out easily which conversion factor to use.

This can also be found on page 303 in your Chemistry book


  • Login