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Chapter 12. Supporting Windows 9x. You Will Learn…. About the Windows 9x architecture How to install Windows 9x and how to install hardware and applications using Windows 9x About tools for using and managing Windows 9x About the Windows 9x boot process How to troubleshoot Windows 9x.

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Supporting Windows 9x

You will learn

You Will Learn…

  • About the Windows 9x architecture

  • How to install Windows 9x and how to install hardware and applications using Windows 9x

  • About tools for using and managingWindows 9x

  • About the Windows 9x boot process

  • How to troubleshoot Windows 9x

Windows 9x architecture

Windows 9x Architecture

  • Shell

    • Portion of the OS that relates to the user and to applications

    • Provides a command, menu, or icon interface to the user

  • Kernel (core)

    • Interacts with the hardware

    • Applications cannot get to hardware devices without the shell passing those requests to the kernel

Important parts of the shell

Important Parts of the Shell

  • User component manages:

    • Input from the keyboard and other user devices

    • Output from the user interface

    • The GDI

  • GDI (Graphics Device Interface)

    • Presents graphical interface to the user and provides graphics support to output devices

Core components of windows 9x

Core Components of Windows 9x

Windows 9x architecture1

Windows 9x Architecture

  • Configuration data primarily stored in the registry, a database that contains:

    • Initialization information for applications

    • Database of hardware and software settings

    • Windows configuration settings

    • User parameters

    • Application settings

  • Some data is kept in text files called initialization files (.ini or .inf extension)

Windows 9x architecture2

Windows 9x Architecture

Virtual machines

Virtual Machines

  • Set of resources made available to an application through predefined application programming interface (API) calls

  • Multiple logical machines within one physical machine

Windows 9x architecture3

Windows 9x Architecture

  • Modular approach

    • Divides functions into separate program groups

    • Makes each component easier to update and implement

Components of windows 9x

Components of Windows 9x

  • VMM (Virtual Machine Manager)

  • IFS (Installable File System) manager

  • Configuration Manager

  • WDM (Win32 Driver Model) driver manager

Installing windows 9x

Installing Windows 9x

  • Contents of installation CD

  • Preparing the hard drive for installation

Contents of windows 9x cd

Contents of Windows 9x CD

  • Files for:

    • Installing the OS

    • Customizing configuration of OS

    • Configuring and optimizing the desktop

    • Network administration

    • Diagnosing and troubleshooting system errors

    • File management

Windows 98 cd

Windows 98 CD

Important folders on the windows 9x cd

Important Folders on the Windows 9x CD

  • CD sample

  • Drivers

  • Oldmsdos

  • Sysrec

Important files on the windows 9x cd

Important Files on theWindows 9x CD

Preparing for installation hardware requirements

Preparing for Installation: Hardware Requirements

Types of installations

Types of Installations

  • Clean install

  • Upgrade install

Installing windows 9x as a clean installation

Installing Windows 9x as aClean Installation

  • Ignores settings in currently installed OS; all hardware and applications must be reinstalled

  • Verify you have all application software installation CDs or floppy disks

  • Back up all data on drive

  • May need to change boot order in CMOS

Installing 9x as an upgrade

Installing 9x as an Upgrade

  • Verify hard drive space

  • Run ScanDisk and antivirus software

  • Check Config.sys and Autoexec.bat for potential problems

  • Disable TSRs that might cause problems

  • Verify that network connection is working

  • Create rescue disk (from Windows 95 to 98)

  • Decide whether to use FAT16 or FAT32

  • Put swap file on drive compressed with protected-mode software

Installation process from setup screen

Installation Process from Setup Screen

  • Setup options

    • Typical

    • Portable

    • Compact

    • Custom

  • Records information in log files

    • Setuplog.txt

    • Detlog.txt

    • Detcrash.log

Setuplog txt log file

Setuplog.txt Log File

Detlog txt log file

Detlog.txt Log File

Configuring windows 9x startup with msdos sys

Configuring Windows 9x Startup with Msdos.sys

  • Msdos.sys contains several parameters that affect how OS boots

  • To edit Msdos.sys, first change file attributes

Msdos sys file options contents

Msdos.sys File Options Contents


Sample msdos sys file

Sample Msdos.sys File

Upgrading from windows 95 to windows 98

Upgrading from Windows 95 to Windows 98

  • Guidelines

    • Check hardware and software for compatibility

    • Run antivirus software; back up system

  • Perform the upgrade

    • Disable system BIOS program that protects boot sector (if applicable)

    • Start Windows 95 and close applications

    • Insert upgrade CD and run C:\Setup; follow prompts

    • Test applications; back up again

  • Download/install updates from Microsoft Web site

Installing hardware with windows 9x

Installing Hardware with Windows 9x

  • Found New Hardware Wizard launches automatically when a new device is installed and you power up

Installing hardware with windows 9x1

Installing Hardware with Windows 9x

Viewing and changing current device drivers

Viewing and Changing Current Device Drivers

Viewing and changing current device drivers1

Viewing and Changing Current Device Drivers

Viewing and changing current device drivers2

Viewing and Changing Current Device Drivers

Plug and play pnp

Plug and Play (PnP)

  • Set of design specifications for hardware and software that works to make hardware installations effortless

  • Criteria

    • System BIOS must be PnP

    • All hardware devices and expansion cards must be PnP-compliant

    • OS must be Windows 9x or another OS that supports PnP

    • 32-bit device driver must be available

Why 9x works better using 32 bit drivers and applications

Why 9x Works Better Using32-bit Drivers and Applications

  • Generally faster than 16-bit software

  • Can be stored in extended memory, releasing more of the first megabyte of memory

  • 32-bit drivers can be loaded automatically; conserves memory

  • 32-bit applications can share data with other 32-bit applications; better use of resources

Installing applications in windows 9x

Installing Applications in Windows 9x

  • Preparing for software installation

  • Performing software installations

  • Troubleshooting software installations

  • Supporting DOS applications underWindows 9x

Preparing for software installation

Preparing for Software Installation

  • Check available resources

  • Protect original software

  • Back up registry and system configuration files

Performing software installations

Performing Software Installations

  • Use Add/Remove Programs icon from Control Panel

  • After installation is complete and software is working, update backup copies of:

    • Autoexec.bat

    • Config.sys

    • System.ini

    • Win.ini

    • Registry

Troubleshooting software installations

Troubleshooting Software Installations

  • If application locks up when first opened, delete all files and folders under \Windows\Temp

  • Look at Readme.htm hypertext file in \Windows directory

Supporting dos applications under windows 9x

Supporting DOS Applications Under Windows 9x

  • Use Properties feature of DOS program file, which will:

    • Create an individual PIF file for the program file

    • Serve as the PIF editor

Supporting dos applications under windows 9x1

Supporting DOS Applications Under Windows 9x

Real mode vs virtual real mode

Real Mode vs. Virtual Real Mode

  • An OS that supports protected mode can allow a 16-bit program that is written to work in real mode to run in virtual real mode

  • In virtual real mode, the program “thinks” that:

    • It is the only program running

    • It has all memory available to it

    • It accesses data using a 16-bit data path

Virtual real mode

Virtual Real Mode

Tools used to monitor control and troubleshoot windows 9x

Tools Used to Monitor, Control, and Troubleshoot Windows 9x


Tools used to monitor control and troubleshoot windows 9x1

Tools Used to Monitor, Control, and Troubleshoot Windows 9x


Tools used to monitor control and troubleshoot windows 9x2

Tools Used to Monitor, Control, and Troubleshoot Windows 9x

Keystroke shortcuts in windows

Keystroke Shortcuts in Windows


Keystroke shortcuts in windows1

Keystroke Shortcuts in Windows


Keystroke shortcuts in windows2

Keystroke Shortcuts in Windows

Managing the windows 9x desktop

Managing theWindows 9x Desktop

  • Make applications automatically load at startup

  • Create shortcuts to files and applications

    • User clicks an icon to load software

  • Make environment more user-friendly

Display properties window

Display Properties Window

Taskbar properties window

Taskbar Properties Window

Working with shortcuts

Working with Shortcuts

Managing icons

Managing Icons

Managing icons1

Managing Icons

Device manager

Device Manager

  • Gives graphical view of hardware devices configured under Windows and the resources and drivers they use

  • Can be used to:

    • Make changes

    • Update drivers

    • Uninstall device drivers

    • Print a report of system configuration

Device manager1

Device Manager

Dr watson

Dr. Watson

  • Records detailed information in a log file about:

    • The system

    • Errors that occur

    • Programs that caused the errors

The windows 9x registry

The Windows 9x Registry

  • Organizes information in a hierarchical database of configuration information and settings for users, hardware, applications, and the OS

  • Takes over essential functions of .ini files

    • Still supports System.ini and Win.ini for backward compatibility

Windows 9x system ini file

Windows 9x System.ini File

How the registry is organized

How the Registry Is Organized

How the registry is organized1

How the Registry Is Organized

Recovering from a corrupted registry

Recovering froma Corrupted Registry

  • Windows 95 backup of the registry

    • Maintains a backup copy of the two registry files and names them System.da0 and User.da0

    • If Windows 95 has trouble loading and starts in safe mode, it does not back up the registry

  • Windows 98/Me Registry Checker

    • Utility that automatically backs up the registry every day

    • Keeps the last five days of backups

The registry checker

The Registry Checker

Repairing or recovering the registry

Repairing or Recovering the Registry

Modifying the registry

Modifying the Registry

  • Automatic when a change is made in Control Panel or Device Manager or when software is installed

  • Use Regedit utility to edit the register manually

Managing memory with windows 9x

Managing Memory with Windows 9x

  • Organized as conventional, upper, and extended as it is in DOS

  • Windows 9x—mostly a 32-bit OS—“lives” in extended memory together with its device drivers and applications and only uses base and upper memory for 16-bit components

Windows 9x swap file

Windows 9x Swap File

Virtual machine manager vmm

Virtual Machine Manager (VMM)

  • Manages memory paging, which involves swapping blocks of memory stored in RAM to the hard drive

  • Terminology

    • Page fault

    • Page-in

    • Page-out

  • Symptoms of disk thrashing

    • Very high CPU use

    • Very slow system response

    • Constant hard drive use

How windows manages memory

How Windows Manages Memory

Booting windows 9x

Booting Windows 9x

  • Files Used to Customize the Startup Process

    • For backward compatibility with DOS

      • Autoexec.bat

      • Config.sys

    • Initialization files

Editing windows system files

Editing Windows System Files

The windows 9x startup process

The Windows 9x Startup Process

  • First loads in real mode; switches to protected mode

    • Io.sys is responsible for initial startup (real mode)

    • Control is turned over to Vmm32.vxd (protected mode) and Io.sys is terminated

  • Five-phase process

    • Phase 1: BIOS POST and Boostrap

    • Phase 2: The OS is Loaded

    • Phase 3: Static VxDs

    • Phase 4: Protected-mode switchover and PnP configuration

    • Phase 5: Loading the remaining components

Default io sys entries

Default Io.sys Entries

Loading an application at startup

Loading an Applicationat Startup

  • Place shortcut in Startup folder

  • Put name of program in Load= or Run= line in Win.ini

  • Manually edit registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

Troubleshooting installations

Troubleshooting Installations

Basic steps for troubleshooting the windows 9x boot process

Basic Steps for Troubleshooting the Windows 9x Boot Process

  • Check and address error messages

  • Boot in safe mode

  • Boot to command prompt using startup menu

  • Try booting from emergency startup disk

Error messages received while loading windows 9x

Error Messages Received While Loading Windows 9x


Error messages received while loading windows 9x1

Error Messages Received While Loading Windows 9x

Tools for troubleshooting problems with booting

Tools for Troubleshooting Problems with Booting

  • System Configuration Utility (Msconfig)

    • Reduces startup process to its essentials to attain cleanest possible boot

  • Device Manager

    • Disables a device

  • Automatic Skip Driver Agent (ASDA)

    • Keeps Windows from installing a driver that might be corrupted

  • Windows 9x startup menu

    • Includes safe mode, the command prompt, and other troubleshooting options

Windows 9x startup menu options

Windows 9x Startup Menu Options

  • Normal

  • Logged (\BOOTLOG.TXT)

  • Safe Mode

  • Safe Mode with network support

  • Step-by-step confirmation

  • Command prompt only

  • Safe Mode command prompt only

  • Previous version of MS-DOS

Bootlog txt file

Bootlog.txt File

Safe mode

Safe Mode

Using scan disk in safe mode

Using Scan Disk in Safe Mode

Using command prompt only

Using Command Prompt Only

Troubleshooting with the startup menu

Troubleshooting withthe Startup Menu

Troubleshooting windows 9x hardware and software

Troubleshooting Windows 9x Hardware and Software

  • Ask the user questions

  • Reboot

  • Check for intermittent memory errors using memory testing software

  • Turn on devices before turning on the computer

  • Try the device with another application

  • Use Check Device Manager to check for errors or to uninstall and reinstall the device


Troubleshooting windows 9x hardware and software1

Troubleshooting Windows 9x Hardware and Software

  • Check the Web for updated device drivers

  • Consider lack of resources

  • Check the registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

  • Check hard drive

  • Suspect a virus


Troubleshooting windows 9x hardware and software2

Troubleshooting Windows 9x Hardware and Software

  • Close applications not currently in use

  • Keep System Tray icons to a minimum

  • Clean up registry with Scanreg /opt command

  • Remove extraneous software

  • Uninstall and reinstall problem software applications; search Web site of manufacturer for fixes and upgrades

Windows help and the microsoft web site

Windows Help andthe Microsoft Web Site

  • Windows Help

    • Access Troubleshooting tool via Start – Help – Troubleshooting

  • Microsoft Web Site


Windows help

Windows Help

Microsoft web site

Microsoft Web Site

Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

  • How Windows 9x is structured

  • How it is used

  • How it works with various software programs and hardware devices

  • How to troubleshoot

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