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MAC Performance Analysis for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communication. Tom H. Luan*, Xinhua Ling , Xuemin (Sherman) Shen* *BroadBand Communication Research Group University of Waterloo. §. Research In Motion. §. Outline. Introduction to Vehicular Network Model of MAC in V2I communication

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Mac performance analysis for vehicle to infrastructure communication

MAC Performance Analysis for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communication

Tom H. Luan*, Xinhua Ling , Xuemin (Sherman) Shen*

*BroadBand Communication Research Group

University of Waterloo


Research In Motion


Outline Communication

  • Introduction to Vehicular Network

  • Model of MAC in V2I communication

  • Simulation

  • Conclusion

Why vehicular networks
Why Vehicular Networks ? Communication

  • Internet becomes an essential part of our daily life

    • Watch video on Youtube; order literature on Amzone; catch the final moments of an eBay auction …

  • Americans spend up to 540 hours on average a year in their vehicles (10% of the waking time)

  • Internet access from vehicles is still luxury

  • Vehicular Network

    • To provide cheap yet high throughput data service for vehicles on the road

V2v and v2i communications
V2V and V2I Communications Communication

Vehicle to RSU (V2R or V2I)

  • Infotainment: Internet access, video streaming, music download, etc.

  • MAC throughput performance evaluation of V2I communication

Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)

RSU (roadside unit)

Standard and research efforts
Standard and Research Efforts Communication

  • IEEE drafts 802.11p standard to permit vehicular communication

    • 802.11a radio technology + 802.11e EDCA MAC

    • Multi-channel: 6 service channels + 1 control channel

  • Drive-thru Internet

    • Using off-the-shelf 802.11b hardware, a vehicle could maintain a connection to a roadside AP for 500m and transfer 9MB of data at 80km/h using either TCP or UDP

Image from

[1] J. Ott and D. Kutscher, "Drive-thru Internet: IEEE 802.11 b for 'automobile' users," in IEEE INFOCOM, 2004

Standard and research efforts cont d
Standard and Research Efforts (cont’d) Communication

  • CarTel in MIT [2]

    • City-wide experiment showing the intermittent and short-lived connectivity, yet high throughput while available

  • Small scale network without considering MAC

    • Link layer and transport layer performance

  • What if a great number of vehicles moving fast?

[2] V. Bychkovsky, B. Hull, A. Miu, H. Balakrishnan and S. Madden, "A measurement study of vehicular internet access using in situ Wi-Fi networks," in ACM MobiCom, 2006

Problem statement
Problem Statement Communication

  • MAC performance evaluation for fast-movinglarge scale vehicular networks

  • We consider 802.11b DCF

    • Used by most trail networks, e.g., Drive-thru

    • Compatible to WiFi device (e.g., iPod Touch)

    • The basis of 802.11p MAC

Network model
Network Model Communication

  • Perfect channel without packet loss and errors

  • Saturated case: nodes always have a packet to transmit

  • Multi-rate transmission according to the distance to RSU

  • Spatial zones: the radio coverage of one RSU is divide into Z = {0, 1, …, N} zones according to node transmission rate

  • p-persistent MAC: nodes transmit with a constant probability pz for different zone n in Z

  • Mobility Model

    • Sojourn time of vehicles in each zone n is geometrically distributed with mean tn

    • Within a period , vehicle moves from zone n to n+1 with the probability /tn, and no change with the left probability

Markov model of vehicle nodes
Markov Model of Vehicle Nodes Communication

  • 2D Markov chain embedded at the commencement of the backoff counter countdown

  • Upon the decrement of backoff counter, vehicle may either move to the next zone or stay in the original zone

  • When coming into a new zone, different transmission probability is applied

  • Each node can be represented by {z(t), b(t)}

    • z(t): zone the vehicle is current in at time t

    • b(t): the value of backoff counter of the node at time t

Simulation setup
Simulation Setup Communication

  • Radio coverage of RSU is 250m, which is divided into 8 zones

  • By default, 50 vehicles move at constant speed with v = 80 km/h

  • When arriving at the end of the road session (zone N), vehicles reenter zone 0 and start a new iteration of communication

  • Two schemes

    • Equal contention window (transmission probability p) in all zones

    • Differential contention window in zones

Nodal throughput in each zone n
Nodal Throughput in Each Zone n Communication

sn =

Nodal Throughput in Each Zone

Average pkt length in each trans.

Mean interval between consecutive trans.

Integrated Throughput


S = ∑


Where Xn is the node population in zone n

  • Using equal CW in all zones would suffer from performance anomaly

Increasing velocity
Increasing Velocity Communication

  • With enhanced node velocity, nodes in front zones have higher throughput than the back zones

    • The small CW in zone 4 benefits the following zones

  • System throughput reduces when velocity increases

Conclusion Communication

  • Throughput performance evaluation of DCF in the vehicle to infrastructure communication

  • Increase the velocity would reduce the system throughput

  • Future work

    • Optimal design of DCF (contention window)

    • QoS provision with call admission control etc.

Question and answers

Question and Answers ? Communication

Thank you !